Comparative skeletal anatomy of neonatal ursids and the extreme altriciality of the giant panda

Peishu Li & Kathleen Smith
Vertebrate neonates are born with a wide range of maturity at birth. Altricial newborns are born with limited sensory agency and require significant parental care, while precocial neonates are relatively mature physically and often capable of independent function. In extant mammals, placental newborns span this range, while marsupials and monotremes are all extremely altricial at birth. Bears (family Ursidae) have one of the lowest neonatal-maternal mass ratios in placental mammals and are considered to have...
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