Broad-Scale Responses of Harbor Porpoises to Pile-Driving and Vessel Activities During Offshore Windfarm Construction

Aude Benhemma-Le Gall, Isla Graham, Nathan Merchant & Paul Thompson
Offshore windfarm developments are expanding, requiring assessment and mitigation of impacts on protected species. Typically, assessments of impacts on marine mammals have focussed on pile-driving, as intense impulsive noise elicits adverse behavioural responses. However, other construction activities such as jacket and turbine installation also change acoustic habitats through increased vessel activity. To date, the contribution of construction-related vessel activity in shaping marine mammal behavioural responses at windfarm construction sites has been overlooked and no guidelines...
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