Copper and zinc generated by the Aquascape IonGen pond clarifier system can be detrimental to koi (Cyprinus carpio) health

Emily Tucker, Jamie Gerlach, Azais Curtean, Kent Passingham, Lisa Murphy & Gregory Lewbart
BackgroundCopper is frequently used as an algicide, and copper ion generators such as the Aquascape IonGen claim to be safe for use in systems containing fish. In 2012, a die-off of koi (Cyprinus carpio) in a pond in Raleigh, North Carolina, occurred after the IonGen was added to the system.MethodsPhysical and postmortem examinations suggested that heavy metal toxicity was the likely cause of morbidity and mortality. This was supported by a heavy metal screening of...
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