Resources and seasonality drive the composition of mixed-species bird flocks along an elevational gradient in the Himalaya

Pranav Gokhale, R. Suresh Kumar, Umesh Srinivasan & Dhananjai Mohan
Mixed-species bird flocks are cohesive networks of interacting insectivorous bird species that benefit from reduced predation risk and/or enhanced resource access. We studied how species' propensity to participate in mixed flocks, and the number and strength of interspecific associations within flocks, changed along elevational (low, mid, high) and seasonal (winter, spring) gradients in the western Himalaya. We expected species to have high propensities, and greater number and strength of interspecific associations when resources are scarce,...
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