Introductory gestures before songbird vocal displays are shaped by learning and biological predispositions

Raghav Rajan, Shikha Kalra, Vishruta Yawatkar, Logan James & Jon Sakata
Numerous animal displays begin with introductory gestures. For example, lizards start their head-bobbing displays with introductory push-ups and many songbirds begin their vocal displays by repeating introductory notes (INs) before producing their learned song. Among songbirds, the acoustic structure and the number of INs produced before song vary considerably between individuals in a species. While similar variation in songs between individuals is a result of learning, whether variation in INs are also due to learning...
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