Testing the European Union Sustainability Criteria for Biofuels - Case Study of Waste-Derived Ethanol

K. Koponen, S. Soimakallio & E. Sipilä
Biofuels are being promoted in many areas of the world including the European Union (EU). The EU directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RED) establishes sustainability criteria for biofuels in order to ensure their environmentally sustainable production. The Renewable Energy Directive also establishes a minimum level for the greenhouse gas emission saving gained by using the biofuels instead of the fossil fuels. In this paper, the methodology presented in...