Future Use of Renewable Energy Sources in EU - Lessons learned from Implementing the RES-E Directive

A. Arasto, L. Kujanpää, T. Mäkinen, S. Helynen, R.W.R. Zwart, J.H.A. Kiel & J. Vehlow
The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in EU is currently guided by three different directives. Europe is on the way to fulfill targets for renewable electricity use set in 2001, followed by targets for biofuels use in road transportation sector in 2003. In 2009 sectoral targets were combined under the RES directive, giving targets for the gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources in 2020. In this paper, the implementation of directives...