The Financial and GHG Cost of Avoiding ILUC in Biomass Sourcing - A Comparison between Switchgrass Produced with and without ILUC in Ukraine

J.P. Lesschen, H.W. Elbersen, R. Poppens, M. Galytskaya, M. Kylik & L. Lerminiaux
Biomass production has both direct effects and indirect effects. Direct effects such as the energy balance and GHG balance can be directly measured, to make sure that impacts are (significantly) below the fossil fuel comparator. In recent years it has also been recognized that the production and use of biomass for energy has indirect effects which are caused by competition for inputs and land. The most important indirect effect is ILUC (indirect land use change)...