Biomass Freezing Tests for Composite and Metal Containers

J. Föhr, K. Karttunen, J. Enström, T. Johannesson & T. Ranta
The use of forest-based biomass has been increasing rapidly over the last and current decade meaning longer transport distances from the supply areas to the largest demand sites. Long distances have also made rail and waterway modes into parts of supply logistics. Interchangeable containers have many advantages in the supply chain, but they will also cause idle times for containers in terminals and long-lasting deliveries. Idle times may cause freezing problems for containers which are...