Torrefaction of Olive Stones in a Rotary Kiln

G. San Miguel & P. Sanginés
This paper investigates the torrefaction of olive stones in a laboratory scale rotary furnace. The process was conducted at temperatures between 150-300ºC and residence times between 0 and 60 minutes. Product yields (gas, solids and condensable oils) were determined gravimetrically for each experimental condition. The olive stones and the torrefied solids were characterized for their chemical, physical, fuel and thermal characteristics in order to optimize upgrading conditions. The experimental results show optimum torrefaction at 300...