In order to meet the strict emission regulations, gasoline operated vehicles are equipped with three-way catalysts (TWC) and lambda sensors are applied to control the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Since the TWC achieves maximum conversion of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides at λ ≈ 1, λ is measured by lambda-probes upstream and downstream of the catalyst and is readjusted if required (λ: normalized air-to-fuel ratio). This leads to an oscillating air-to-fuel-ratio that is damped...
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