Platform-based, virtual co-creation in cities is currently a major, global trend. In response to democratic challenges, cities like Madrid, Barcelona, Paris and Reykjavik invite citizens to co-create the city through virtual platforms. Based on research in the fields of e-participation and digital crowdsourcing and drawing on the first mover cases of Reykjavik and Barcelona, this article explores the democratic possibilities and limitations of this type of digital co-creation.
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