EU as Principal-orchestrator: Horizontal Policy Externalisation Through Intermediaries

Antonio Salvador Alcazar
ABSTRACT: Bilateral free trade agreements and nonreciprocal preferential schemes constitute the most direct market-based instruments at the European Union’s disposal to lever concessions from exterior actors. Existing research on the EU as a global trade power, however, virtually ignores how EU institutions engage proxies to peddle policy prescriptions in third markets through the decentralised mechanisms of delegation and orchestration. As intermediaries possess built-in governance capabilities on the ground, the EU manages to indirectly nudge non-EU...
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