Null hypothesis significance testing interpreted and calibrated by estimating probabilities of sign errors: A Bayes-frequentist continuum

David R. Bickel
Concepts from multiple testing can improve tests of single hypotheses. The proposed definition of the calibrated p value is an estimate of the local false sign rate, the posterior probability that the direction of the estimated effect is incorrect. Interpreting one-sided p values as estimates of conditional posterior probabilities, that calibrated p value is (1 - LFDR) p/2 + LFDR, where p is a two-sided p value and LFDR is an estimate of the local...
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