Battery Second Life: A Review of Challenges and Opportunities

Jarod C. Kelly & Olumide Winjobi
Electric vehicles contain lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that tend to be both large and expensive, and these LIBs likely have significant storage capacity remaining when they can no longer meet the power and energy demands of a typical vehicle application. That remaining LIB capacity could provide a financial opportunity to many individuals and institutions along the possible value chain towards its eventual end-of-life. This could include vehicle owners, battery repurposers (those that collect, evaluate, and repackage...
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