Urinary tract infections in patients with renal insufficiency and dialysis – epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Jürgen E Scherberich, Reinhard Fünfstück & Kurt G. Naber
Epidemiological studies show an increasing number of patients worldwide suffering from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), which are associated with a risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). CKD patients stage 2–5, patients with regular chronic dialysis treatment (hemo- or peritoneal dialysis), and patients suffering from kidney allograft dysfunction are at high risk to develop infections, e.g. urinary tract infections (UTI) and/or sepsis (urosepsis). These groups show metabolic disturbance, chronic inflammation, and impaired immunocompetence. Escherichia...
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