Aptamer-based Nanosensors: Juglone as an Attached-Redox Molecule for Detection of Codeine

Mehdi Saberian, Hossein Hamzeiy, Ayuob Aghanejad & Davoud Asgari
Introduction: Among several biosensing approaches, electrochemical-based procedures have been described as one of the most common and useful methods for sensing because of their simplicity, sensitivity, accuracy, and low cost. The electroactive species, which called redox, play a main role in the electrochemical-based approaches. Of several redox molecules used for electrochemical experiments, ferrocene is one of the commonly used redox molecules. However, instability of ferrocenium ion in the chloride containing solutions appeared to be weakness...