Example measurements of electron energy and pitch angle distributions from Venus Express

Shaosui Xu, Rudy Frahm, Yingjuan Ma, Janet Luhmann & David Mitchell
Venus has negligible intrinsic magnetic fields to the first order, such that its ionosphere (the charged part of the atmosphere) interacts directly with the solar wind plasma and magnetic field. Therefore, magnetic connectivity to the ionosphere and/or solar wind is an important piece of information for understanding the near-Venus space environment and the Sun-Venus interaction. We utilize measurements from the Venus Express to determine magnetic connectivity, or magnetic topology, for the first time. We find...
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