Maintenance and Loss of Migration and Migration-Associated Phenotypes in Monarch Butterflies

Ayse Catherine Tenger-Trolander
North American monarch butterflies maintain alternative migratory phenotypes that develop when individuals experience environmental cues that indicate summer is transitioning into autumn. While the summer generations live relatively short lives in which they reproduce quickly, the migratory generation delays reproduction to migrate thousands of miles to overwinter in Mexico or Southern California. As monarchs are freeze susceptible insects, migration is an adaptation to survive the cold of winter. However, not all monarchs need to migrate....
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