From Collective Sovereignty to Autocracy: The Evolution of the Mongol Empire, 1227-1251

Michael J. Bechtel
When Činggis Qan died in 1227, the Mongol Empire was a confederation of steppe peoples engaged in conquests over other steppe societies as well as civilizations of Central Eurasia. By the time of the election of Činggis Qan’s grandson, Möngke, to the office of qa’an in 1251, the Mongol Empire had become a loosely allied group of states that recognized the qa’an as the head of an administration whose main duties were the collection and...
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