Manual emptying of ventilated improved pit latrines and hygiene challenges - a baseline survey in a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

& Stefan Schmidt
The presence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. was determined on the skin, personal protective equipment, the municipal vehicle, and various surfaces at ten households in a peri-urban community (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) before and after manual emptying of ventilated improved pit latrines. Surface samples (n = 14) were collected using sterile wet wipes, and target bacteria were detected using standard procedures. Additionally, E. coli was enumerated in soil samples from an area of open defecation...
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