Red and processed meat intakes and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: An umbrella systematic review and assessment of causal relations using Bradford Hill’s criteria

Erica R. Hill, Lauren E. O’Connor, Yu Wang, Caroline M. Clark, Bethany S. McGowan, Michele R. Forman & Wayne W. Campbell
Observational research suggests higher red and processed meat intakes predict greater risks of developing or dying from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but this research limits causal inference. This systematic review of reviews utilizes both observational and experimental research findings to infer causality of these relations. Reviews from four databases were screened by two researchers. Reviews included unprocessed red meat (URM), processed meat (PM), or mixed URM + PM intake, and...
1 citation reported since publication in 2022.
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