Electronic supplementary material from Rheology of marine sponges reveals anisotropic mechanics and tuned dynamics

Emile A. Kraus, Lauren E. Mellenthin, Sara A. Siwiecki, Dawei Song, Jing Yan, Paul A. Janmey & Alison M. Sweeney
Sponges are animals that inhabit many aquatic environments while filtering small particles and ejecting metabolic wastes. They are composed of cells in a bulk extracellular matrix, often with an embedded scaffolding of stiff, siliceous spicules. We hypothesize that the mechanical response of this heterogeneous tissue to hydrodynamic flow influences cell proliferation in a manner that generates the body of a sponge. Towards a more complete picture of the emergence of sponge morphology, we dissected a...
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