Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in post-traumatic stress disorder patients with or without comorbid dissociative disorders

Harald Bækkelund, Paul Frewen, Ruth Lanius, Akiah Ottesen Berg & Espen Ajo Arnevik
Background: The four-dimensional (‘4-D’) model has been proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and delineate trauma-related dissociative experiences, categorizing symptoms into trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) and normal waking consciousness (NWC), which occur along four dimensions: time, thought, body and emotion. Objective: The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of this model in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with and without comorbid dissociative disorders. Method: The predictions...
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