Video 1; Extracted locations of predator and prey plotted for several trials (.avi) from The confusion effect when attacking simulated three-dimensional starling flocks

Benedict G. Hogan, Hanno Hildenbrandt, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Innes C. Cuthill & Charlotte K. Hemelrijk
The confusion effect describes the phenomenon of decreasing predator attack success with increasing prey group size. However, there is a paucity of research into the influence of this effect in coherent groups, such as flocks of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Here, for the first time, we use a computer game style experiment to investigate the confusion effect in three dimensions. To date, computerized studies on the confusion effect have used two-dimensional simulations with simplistic prey...
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