Endogenous prostaglandin E2 amplifies IL-33 production by macrophages through an E prostanoid (EP)2/EP4-cAMP-EPACdependent pathway

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 9.5px Helvetica} span.s1 {font: 6.0px Helvetica} When activated through toll-like receptors (TLRs), macrophages generate IL-33, an IL-1 family member that induces innate immune responses through ST2 signaling. LPS, a TLR4 ligand, induces macrophages to generate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) through inducible COX-2 and microsomal PGE2 synthase 1 (mPGES-1) (1). We demonstrate that IL-33 production by bone marrow-derived murine macrophages (bmMFs) requires the generation of endogenous PGE2 and the intrinsic...
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