Discussion of the paraxial approximation and numerical analysis of spherical aberration

César Medina & Sandra Velazco
Textbooks intended to undergraduate students discuss image formation by mirrors and lens based on paraxial approximation. This conventional approach has ambiguities and lacks which induce students to conceptual mistakes. This paper points out those ambiguities and demonstrates that a basic proposition of paraxial approximation has a very limited scope. Furthermore, as a didactical tool to overcome conceptual difficulties, figures are presented depicting ray trajectories and spherical aberrations, computed precisely in terms of the focusing systematic...
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