T lymphocytes migrate upstream after completing the leukocyte adhesion cascade

Nicholas R. Anderson, Alexander Buffone & Daniel A. Hammer
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is of critical importance for both the maintenance of immune homeostasis and the ability of immune cells to perform effector functions. Here, we present data showing CD4+ T cells migrate upstream (against the direction of flow) after completing the leukocyte adhesion cascade on surfaces displaying either ICAM-1 or ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but migrate downstream on surfaces displaying only VCAM-1. Cells completing the cascade on HUVECs initially migrate upstream before reverting to...
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