Supplementary material from \"Oldest known multituberculate stapes suggests an asymmetric bicrural pattern as ancestral for Multituberculata\"

Julia A. Schultz, Irina Ruf & Thomas Martin
Middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) are known for few multituberculate taxa, and three different stapedial morphotypes have been suggested: (i) slender, columelliform and microperforate, (ii) robust and rod-like and (iii) bicrural. Reinvestigation of Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) mammalian petrosals from the Guimarota coal mine in central Portugal (Western Europe) revealed an asymmetric bicrural stapes (ABS) in the paulchoffatiid Pseudobolodon oreas. The middle ear ossicles displaced inside the osseous vestibule were detected by a μCT analysis....
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