Temporal and spatial trends in insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: outcomes from an evaluation of implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control

Bashir Ismail, , Jihad Sulieman, , Brent Thomas, Abraham Mnzava, Nur Faeza Abu Kassim, Abu Ahmad, Tessa Knox, Immo Kleinschmidt & Martin Donnelly
Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) (with pyrethroids) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of the Sudanese malaria control program. Insecticide resistance to the principal insecticides in LLINs and IRS is a major concern. This study was designed to monitor insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from 140 clusters in four malaria-endemic areas of Sudan from 2011 to 2014. All clusters received LLINs, while half (n = 70), distributed across the four regions, had...
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