Multi-omics analysis reveals the influence of genetic and environmental risk factors on developing gut microbiota in infants at risk of celiac disease

Maureen M. Leonard, , , Jacopo Troisi, Francesco Valitutti, , Stephanie Camhi, Victoria Kenyon, Angelo Colucci, Gloria Serena, Salvatore Cucchiara, Monica Montuori, Basilio Malamisura, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luca Elli, Brian Fanelli, Rita Colwell, Nur Hasan, Ali R. Zomorrodi & Alessio Fasano
Abstract Background Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune digestive disorder that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals in response to ingesting gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Research shows that genetic predisposition and exposure to gluten are necessary but not sufficient to trigger the development of CD. This suggests that exposure to other environmental stimuli early in life, e.g., cesarean section delivery and exposure to antibiotics or formula feeding, may also play a...
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