Antibiotics create a shift from mutualism to competition in human gut communities with a longer-lasting impact on fungi than bacteria

Bastian Seelbinder, , Sascha Brunke, Ruben Vazquez-Uribe, Rakesh Santhaman, , Felipe Senne De Oliveira Lino, , Daniel Loos, Lejla Imamovic, , Rex Pui-Kin Lam, , Kang Kang, Bernhard Hube, Patrick Chiu-Yat Woo, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer & Gianni Panagiotou
Abstract Background Antibiotic treatment has a well-established detrimental effect on the gut bacterial composition, but effects on the fungal community are less clear. Bacteria in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract may limit fungal colonization and invasion. Antibiotic drugs targeting bacteria are therefore seen as an important risk factor for fungal infections and induced allergies. However, antibiotic effects on gut bacterial-fungal interactions, including disruption and resilience of fungal community compositions, were not investigated in humans....
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