Validation of photoacoustic/ultrasound dual imaging in evaluating blood oxygen saturation

Si Liu, Rui Zhang, Tao Han, Yinhao Pan, Guangjie Zhang, Xing Long, Chenyang Zhao, Ming Wang, Xuelan Li & Fang Yang
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was performed to evaluate oxygen saturation (sO₂) of blood-mimicking phantoms, femoral arteries in beagles, and radial arteries in humans at various sO₂ plateaus. The accuracy (root mean square error) of PAI sO₂ compared with reference sO₂ was calculated. In blood-mimicking phantoms, PAI achieved an accuracy of 1.49% and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.09% within 25 mm depth, and good linearity (R = 0.968; p < 0.001) was obtained between PAI...
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