Item response theory and differential test functioning analysis of the HBSC-Symptom-Checklist across 46 countries

Andreas Heinz, Philipp E. Sischka, Carolina Catunda, Alina Cosma, Irene García-Moya, Nelli Lyyra, Anne Kaman, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer & William Pickett
Abstract Background The Symptom Checklist (SCL) developed by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study is a non-clinical measure of psychosomatic complaints (e.g., headache and feeling low) that has been used in numerous studies. Several studies have investigated the psychometric characteristics of this scale; however, some psychometric properties remain unclear, among them especially a) dimensionality, b) adequacy of the Graded Response Model (GRM), and c) measurement invariance across countries. Methods Data from 229,906 adolescents...
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