A comprehensive analysis of penile cancer in the region with the highest worldwide incidence reveals new insights into the disease

Antonio Augusto Lima Teixeira Júnior, Syomara Pereira da Costa Melo, Jaqueline Diniz Pinho, Thaís Bastos Moraes Sobrinho, Thalita Moura Silva Rocha, Denner Rodrigo Diniz Duarte, Liseana de Oliveira Barbosa, Wesliany Everton Duarte, Marta Regina de Castro Belfort, Kelly Gomes Duarte, Antonio Lima da Silva Neto, José de Ribamar Rodrigues Calixto, Lúcio Cristiano Paiva Paiva, Francisco Sérgio Moura Silva do Nascimento, Antonio Machado Alencar Junior, André Salim Khayat, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão Corrêa, Joyce Santos Lages, Rodolfo Borges dos Reis, Wilson Silva Araújo & Gyl Eanes Barros Silva
Abstract Background Although penile cancer (PC) is uncommon in developed countries, it is widespread in developing countries. The state of Maranhão (Northeast, Brazil) has the highest global incidence recorded for PC, and, despite its socioeconomic vulnerability, it has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This study aimed to determine the histopathological features, the prevalence of HPV infection, and the immunohistochemical profile of PC in Maranhão. Methods A retrospective cohort of 200 PC cases were...
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