The impact of circadian rhythms on the immune response to influenza vaccination in middle-aged and older adults (IMPROVE): a randomised controlled trial

Yihao Liu, Hui Zhang, Gang Yuan, Mi Yao, Bin Li, Jianying Chen, Yuling Fan, Ruohui Mo, Fenghua Lai, Xinwen Chen, Mengyuan Li, Binfeng Chen, Janet M. Lord, Sui Peng, KarKeung Cheng & Haipeng Xiao
Abstract Background Vaccination is important in influenza prevention but the immune response wanes with age. The circadian nature of the immune system suggests that adjusting the time of vaccination may provide an opportunity to improve immunogenicity. Our previous cluster trial in Birmingham suggested differences between morning and afternoon vaccination for some strains in the influenza vaccine in older adults. Whether this effect is also seen in a younger age group with less likelihood of compromised...
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