Incorporating Complex Sampling Weights in Multilevel Analyses of Educational Data

Ting Shen & Spyros Konstantopoulos
Large-scale assessment survey (LSAS) data are collected via complex sampling designs with special features (e.g., clustering and unequal probability of selection). Multilevel models have been utilized to account for clustering effects whereas the probability weighting approach (PWA) has been used to deal with design informativeness derived from the unequal probability selection. However, the difficulty of applying PWA in multilevel models (MLM) has been generally underestimated and practical guidance is scarce. This study utilizes an empirical...
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