Comparing the individual and combined effects of ant attendance and wing formation on aphid body size and reproduction

Ph.D. Nelson & Kailen A. Mooney
Species employ multiple strategies to deal with stressful environments, but these strategies often incur costs. Aphids frequently utilize multiple predator avoidance strategies, including attracting mutualist ants for protection and dispersing by producing winged forms. While both strategies can be physiologically costly, the magnitudes of these costs have not been previously compared. In this study, we experimentally manipulated ant attendance in the field and measured the individual and interactive effects of ant attendance and wing formation...
26 views reported since publication in 2020.

These counts follow the COUNTER Code of Practice, meaning that Internet robots and repeats within a certain time frame are excluded.
What does this mean?