Development of self-esteem from age 4 to 94 years: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

Ulrich Orth, Ruth Yasemin Erol & Eva C. Luciano
To investigate the normative trajectory of self-esteem across the life span, this meta-analysis synthesizes the available longitudinal data on mean-level change in self-esteem. The analyses were based on 331 independent samples, including data from 164,868 participants. As effect size measure, we used the standardized mean change d per year. The mean age associated with the effect sizes ranged from 4 to 94 years. Results showed that average levels of self-esteem increased from age 4 to...
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