Viable pigs after simultaneous inactivation of porcine MHC class I and three xenoreactive antigen genes GGTA1, CMAH and B4GALNT2.

Konrad Fischer, Beate Rieblinger, Rabea Hein, Riccardo Sfriso, Julia Zuber, Andrea Fischer, Bernhard Klinger, Wei Liang, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Mayuko Kurome, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Barbara Kessler, Eckhard Wolf, Robert Rieben, Reinhard Schwinzer, Alexander Kind & Angelika Schnieke
BACKGROUND Cell surface carbohydrate antigens play a major role in the rejection of porcine xenografts. The most important for human recipients are α-1,3 Gal (Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose) causing hyperacute rejection, also Neu5Gc (N-glycolylneuraminic acid) and Sd(a) blood group antigens both of which are likely to elicit acute vascular rejection given the known human immune status. Porcine cells with knockouts of the three genes responsible, GGTA1, CMAH and B4GALNT2, revealed minimal xenoreactive antibody binding after incubation with human...
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