Trade Openness and the Illegal Ivory Trade

Diana Schoder
This paper examines how the illegal ivory trade|including poaching, smuggling, and stockpiling|responds to increases in trade openness. When a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement promotes legal trade between an ivory-exporting country and the United States, the impact on illegal ivory is unclear. Predictions about poaching activ- ity and smuggling diverge, and the option to stockpile further complicates this scenario. A dierence-in-dierences estimation using a panel regression with synthetic controls and unique tests to analyze shifting...
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