187 Works

Data from: Biogeography and evolution of body size and life history of African frogs: phylogeny of squeakers (Arthroleptis) and long-fingered frogs (Cardioglossa) estimated from mitochondrial data

David C Blackburn & D BLACKBURN
The evolutionary history of living African amphibians remains poorly understood. This study estimates the phylogeny within the frog genera Arthroleptis and Cardioglossa using approximately 2400 bases of mtDNA sequence data (12S, tRNA-Valine, and 16S genes) from half of the described species. Analyses are conducted using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. The effect of alignment on phylogeny estimation is explored by separately analyzing alignments generated with different gap costs and a consensus alignment. The consensus...

Data from: A hierarchical Bayesian model for calibrating estimates of species divergence times

Tracy A. Heath
In Bayesian divergence time estimation methods, incorporating calibrating information from the fossil record is commonly done by assigning prior densities to ancestral nodes in the tree. Calibration prior densities are typically parametric distributions offset by minimum age estimates provided by the fossil record. Specification of the parameters of calibration densities requires the user to quantify his or her prior knowledge of the age of the ancestral node relative to the age of its calibrating fossil....

Data from: Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution

Richard E. Broughton, Ricardo Betancur-R., Chenhong Li, Gloria Arratia & Guillermo Orti
Over half of all vertebrates are “fishes”, which exhibit enormous diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, reproductive biology, and ecology. Investigation of fundamental areas of vertebrate biology depend critically on a robust phylogeny of fishes, yet evolutionary relationships among the major actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages have not been conclusively resolved. Although a consensus phylogeny of teleosts has been emerging recently, it has been based on analyses of various subsets of actinopterygian taxa, but not on a...

Data from: An adaptive radiation of frogs in a Southeast Asian island archipelago

David C. Blackburn, Cameron D. Siler, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jimmy A. McGuire, David C. Cannatella & Rafe M. Brown
Living amphibians exhibit a diversity of ecologies, life histories, and species-rich lineages that offers opportunities for studies of adaptive radiation. We characterize a diverse clade of frogs (Kaloula, Microhylidae) in the Philippine island archipelago as an example of an adaptive radiation into three primary habitat specialists or ecotypes. We use a novel phylogenetic estimate for this clade to evaluate the tempo of lineage accumulation and morphological diversification. Because species-level phylogenetic estimates for Philippine Kaloula are...

Data from: Spotted stream frog diversification at the Australasian faunal zone interface, mainland versus island comparisons, and a test of the Philippine ‘dual-umbilicus’ hypothesis

Rafe M. Brown & Cameron D. Siler
Aim: We utilize comprehensive geographical sampling and a new, multilocus dataset to re-examine the biogeography of spotted stream frogs throughout Southeast Asia. We compare patterns of diversification among stream frog populations on land-bridge islands and oceanic islands and we reevaluate a previous ‘dual-invasion’ hypothesis for the origins of several endemic Philippine taxa. Location: Southeast Asia, Sundaland, and the Philippines. Methods: Stream frogs were collected and sequenced for two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene regions. We...

Data from: The challenge of species delimitation at the extremes: diversification without morphological change in Philippine sun skinks

Anthony J. Barley, Jordan White, Arvin C. Diesmos & Rafe M. Brown
Species represent one of the fundamental units of the evolutionary process, and an accurate understanding of species diversity is essential to studies across a wide range of biological subdisciplines. However, delimiting species remains challenging in evolutionary radiations where morphological diversification is rapid and accompanied by little genetic differentiation or when genetic lineage divergence is not accompanied by morphological change. We investigate the utility of a variety of recently developed approaches to examine genetic and morphological...

Data from: Critically endangered island endemic or peripheral population of a widespread species? Conservation genetics of Kikuchi’s gecko and the global challenge of protecting peripheral oceanic island endemic vertebrates

Cameron D. Siler, Jamie R. Oaks, Kerry Cobb, Hidetoshi Ota & Rafe M. Brown
Aim: To highlight the significant conservation challenge of evaluating peripheral endemic vertebrates in island archipelago systems and to assess empirically the complexities of approaches to conservation genetic studies across political and biogeographic boundaries. To demonstrate the poignant need for international collaboration and coordination when species delimitation problems with high conservation concern involve island endemics with biogeographically peripheral ranges. Location: Southeast Asia, Lanyu Island, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Methods: Genetic samples were collected and sequenced for...

Data from: Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine mollusks over the past three million years

Erin E. Saupe, Jonathan R. Hendricks, Roger W. Portell, Harry J. Dowsett, Alan Haywood, Stephen J. Hunter & Bruce S. Lieberman
In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal...

Data from: Inferring speciation history in the Andes with reduced-representation sequence data: an example in the bay-backed antpittas (Aves; Grallariidae; Grallaria hypoleuca s. l.)

Benjamin M. Winger, Peter A. Hosner, Gustavo A. Bravo, Andrés M. Cuervo, Natalia Aristizábal, Luis E. Cueto & John M. Bates
In the Andes, humid-forest organisms frequently exhibit pronounced genetic structure and geographic variation in phenotype, often coincident with physical barriers to dispersal. However, phylogenetic relationships of clades have often been difficult to resolve due to short internodes. Consequently, even in taxa with well-defined genetic structure, the temporal and geographic sequences of dispersal and vicariance events that led to this differentiation have remained opaque, hindering efforts to test the association between diversification and earth history and...

Data from: Development of a genomic resource and quantitative trait loci mapping of male calling traits in the lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella

Jennifer M. Gleason, Yihong Zhou, Jennifer L. Hackett, Bethany R. Harris & Michael D. Greenfield
In the study of sexual selection among insects, the Lesser Waxmoth, Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), has been one of the more intensively studied species over the past 20 years. Studies have focused on how the male calling song functions in pair formation and on the quantitative genetics of male song characters and female preference for the song. Recent QTL studies have attempted to elucidate the genetic architecture of male song and female preference traits using...

Data from: Landscape and environmental influences on Mycobacterium ulcerans distribution among aquatic sites in Ghana

Shannon M. Pileggi, Heather Jordan, Julie A. Clennon, Ellen Whitney, M. Eric Benbow, Richard Merritt, Mollie McIntosh, Ryan Kimbirauskas, Pamela Small, Daniel Boayke, Charles Quaye, Jiaguo Qi, Lindsay Campbell, Jenni Gronseth, Edwin Ampadu, William Opare, Lance Waller, Lance A. Waller & Daniel Boakye
Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is highly endemic in West Africa. While the mode of transmission is unknown, many studies associate Buruli ulcer with different types of water exposure. We present results from the largest study to date to test for M. ulcerans in aquatic sites and identify environmental attributes associated with its presence. Environmental samples from 98 aquatic sites in the Greater Accra, Ashanti, and Volta regions of Ghana were tested for the...

Data from: Comparative tests of the role of dewlap size in Anolis lizard speciation

Travis Ingram, Alexis Harrison, D. Luke Mahler, María Del Rosario Castañeda, Richard E. Glor, Anthony Herrel, Yoel E. Stuart & Jonathan B. Losos
Phenotypic traits may be linked to speciation in two distinct ways: character values may influence the rate of speciation or diversification in the trait may be associated with speciation events. Traits involved in signal transmission, such as the dewlap of Anolis lizards, are often involved in the speciation process. The dewlap is an important visual signal with roles in species recognition and sexual selection, and dewlaps vary among species in relative size as well as...

Data from: Can asexuality confer a short term advantage? Investigating apparent biogeographic success in the apomictic triploid fern Myriopteris gracilis

David A. Wickell, Michael D. Windham, Xiaofei Wang, Stuart J. Macdonald & James B. Beck
Premise of the study: Although asexual taxa are generally seen as evolutionary dead ends, asexuality appears to provide a short-term benefit in some taxa, including a wider geographic distribution compared to sexual relatives. However, this may be an illusion created by multiple, morphologically cryptic, asexual lineages, each occupying a relatively small area. In this study we investigate the role of multiple lineages in the biogeography of Myriopteris gracilis Fée (Pteridaceae), a North American apomictic triploid...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Data from: Do brachiopods show substrate-related phenotypic variation? A case study from the Burgess Shale

Timothy P. Topper, Luke C. Strotz, Christian B. Skovsted & Lars E. Holmer
As sessile, benthic filter feeders, brachiopods share an intimate relationship with their chosen substrate. Individuals of Micromitra burgessensis in the Burgess Shale Formation are preserved in life position, attached to a range of hard substrates, including skeletal debris, conspecific brachiopods, sponges and enigmatic tubes. Here we investigate the phenotypic variability of M. burgessensis associated with differing substrate attachments. We apply geometric morphometrics to test for variation by plotting landmarks on the exterior of ventral and...

Data from: Demography or selection on linked cultural traits or genes? Investigating the driver of low mtDNA diversity in the sperm whale using complementary mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses

Phillip A. Morin, Andrew D. Foote, Charles Scott Baker, Brittany L. Hancock-Hanser, Kristin Kaschner, Bruce R. Mate, Sarah L. Mesnick, Victoria L. Pease, Patricia E. Rosel & Alana Alexander
Mitochondrial DNA has been heavily utilized in phylogeography studies for several decades. However, underlying patterns of demography and phylogeography may be misrepresented due to coalescence stochasticity, selection, variation in mutation rates, and cultural hitchhiking (linkage of genetic variation to culturally transmitted traits affecting fitness). Cultural hitchhiking has been suggested as an explanation for low genetic diversity in species with strong social structures, counteracting even high mobility, abundance and limited barriers to dispersal. One such species...

Data from: Changes in spatial variance during a grassland to shrubland state transition

Zak Ratajczak, Paolo D'Odorico, Jesse B. Nippert, Scott L. Collins, Nathaniel A. Brunsell & Sujith Ravi
State transitions are changes in ecosystem structure and self-reinforcing feedbacks that are initiated when an exogenous driver variable crosses a threshold. Reversing state transitions is difficult and costly. While some state transitions are relatively rapid, many take years to decades. Outside of theoretical models, very little is known about slower state transitions and how they unfold in time and space. We quantified changes in spatial variance as a mesic grassland ecosystem shifts to a shrub-dominated...

Data from: A phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with descriptions of two new species from Myanmar

L. Lee Grismer, , Matthew L. Murdoch, Perry L. Wood, Mark W. Herr, Rafe M. Brown, Evan S.H. Quah, Robert E. Espinoza & Marta S. Grismer
A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar is constructed based on color pattern, morphology, and molecular systematic analyses using the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Newly collected samples from the type locality of C. peguensis and other localities indicate that this clade is endemic to central Myanmar and contains at least seven species, four of which are undescribed. Three species, including C. peguensis occur in...

Data from: An evaluation of transferability of ecological niche models

Huijie Qiao, Xiao Feng, Luis E. Escobar, A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberon, Gengping Zhu & Monica Papeș
Ecological niche modeling (ENM) is used widely to study species’ geographic distributions. ENM applications frequently involve transferring models calibrated with environmental data from one region to other regions or times that may include novel environmental conditions. When novel conditions are present, transferability implies extrapolation, whereas, in absence of such conditions, transferability is an interpolation step only. We evaluated transferability of models produced using 11 ENM algorithms from the perspective of interpolation and extrapolation in a...

Data from: Natatanuran frogs used the Indian Plate to step-stone disperse and radiate across the Indian Ocean

Zhi-Yong Yuan, Bao-Lin Zhang, Christopher J. Raxworthy, David W. Weisrock, Paul M. Hime, Jie-Qiong Jin, Emily M. Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Sean D. Holland, Michelle L. Kortyna, Wei-Wei Zhou, Min-Sheng Peng, Jing Che & Elizabeth Prendini
Natatanura raw assembled sequencesNatatanura_seqs.zip

Data from: Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem

Jolanda Jetten, Nyla R. Branscombe, S. Alexander Haslam, Catherine Haslam, Tegan Cruwys, Janelle M. Jones, Lijuan Cui, Genevieve Dingle, James Liu, Sean Murphy, Anh Thai, Zoe Walter & Airong Zhang
Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to...

Data from: Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Talita Zupo
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of carangimorph fishes reveals flatfish asymmetry arose in a blink of the evolutionary eye

Richard C. Harrington, Brant C. Faircloth, Ron I. Eytan, W. Leo Smith, Thomas J. Near, Michael E. Alfaro & Matt Friedman
Background: Flatfish cranial asymmetry represents one of the most remarkable morphological innovations among vertebrates, and has fueled vigorous debate on the manner and rate at which strikingly divergent phenotypes evolve. A surprising result of many recent molecular phylogenetic studies is the lack of support for flatfish monophyly, where increasingly larger DNA datasets of up to 23 loci have yielded a polyphyletic or only weakly supported flatfish clade. Lack of resolution for flatfish relationships has been...

Data from: Mapping QTL contributing to variation in posterior lobe morphology between strains of Drosophila melanogaster

Jennifer L. Hackett, Xiaofei Wang, Brittny R. Smith, Stuart Macdonald & Stuart J. Macdonald
Closely-related, and otherwise morphologically similar insect species frequently show striking divergence in the shape and/or size of male genital structures, a phenomenon thought to be driven by sexual selection. Comparative interspecific studies can help elucidate the evolutionary forces acting on genital structures to drive this rapid differentiation. However, genetic dissection of sexual trait divergence between species is frequently hampered by the difficulty generating interspecific recombinants. Intraspecific variation can be leveraged to investigate the genetics of...

Data from: Mutations in different pigmentation genes are associated with parallel melanism in island flycatchers

J. Albert C. Uy, Elizabeth A. Cooper, Stephen Cutie, Moira R. Concannon, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Robert G. Moyle & Christopher E. Filardi
The independent evolution of similar traits across multiple taxa provides some of the most compelling evidence of natural selection. Little is known, however, about the genetic basis of these convergent or parallel traits: are they mediated by identical or different mutations in the same genes, or unique mutations in different genes? Using a combination of candidate gene and reduced representation genomic sequencing approaches, we explore the genetic basis of and the evolutionary processes that mediate...

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