64 Works

Non-negligible contribution of subordinates in community-level litter decomposition: deciduous trees in an evergreen world

Chao Guo, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Bin Tuo, Hang Ci & En-Rong Yan
1. Subordinates have relatively low abundance compared to dominants, but they may contribute substantially to functional diversity and ecosystem functions, especially if they differ strongly from the dominants in key traits. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon can be applied to litter decomposition as a key carbon and nutrient cycling process. 2. We hypothesized that species’ litter mass-weighted predictions of community-level litter decomposition based on the rates of dominants only would deviate strongly from observed...

Association of leaf silicon content with chronic wind exposure across and within herbaceous plant species

Yao-Bin Song, Yu-Kun Hu, Xu Pan, Guo-Fang Liu, Ming Dong & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
Aim: High foliar silicon (henceforth Si) concentration protects plant tissues against herbivory but protection against several abiotic stressors has been proposed too, though the adaptive significance of these functions is still being debated. We aimed to explore the potential relationships between foliar Si content and chronic wind exposure across a large scale and multiple species, and analyze an overlooked alternative or complementary function of silicon in leaves: mechanical protection against wind. Location: Mainland China. Time...

Invertebrate phenology modulates the effect of the leaf economics spectrum on litter decomposition rate across 41 subtropical woody plant species

Chao Guo, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Bin Tuo, Hang Ci & En-Rong Yan
Litter quality and decomposers are critical to carbon and nutrient cycling through litter decomposition. However, how relationships between litter quality and invertebrate detritivores change litter mass loss through time is poorly known. Species’ initial leaf litter quality, as a legacy of their position on the “leaf economics spectrum” (LES), may determine the invertebrate contribution to litter mass loss. This contribution may change through time, as both population peaks of invertebrate detritivores and litter quality of...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: How much of the world is woody?

Richard G. FitzJohn, Matt W. Pennell, Amy E. Zanne, Peter F. Stevens, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell & Matthew W. Pennell
1.The question posed by the title of this paper is a basic one, and it is surprising that the answer is not known. Recently assembled trait datasets provide an opportunity to address this, but scaling these datasets to the global scale is challenging because of sampling bias. Although we currently know the growth form of tens of thousands of species, these data are not a random sample of global diversity; some clades are exhaustively characterised,...

Data from: Fixation biases towards the index finger in almost-natural grasping

Dimitris Voudouris, Jeroen B. J. Smeets & Eli Brenner
We use visual information to guide our grasping movements. When grasping an object with a precision grip, the two digits need to reach two different positions more or less simultaneously, but the eyes can only be directed to one position at a time. Several studies that have examined eye movements in grasping have found that people tend to direct their gaze near where their index finger will contact the object. Here we aimed at better...

Data from: Quantifying urban ecosystem services based on high-resolution data of urban green space: an assessment for Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Marthe L. Derkzen, Astrid J. A. Van Teeffelen & Peter H. Verburg
1. The urban dimension of ecosystem services (ES) is underexposed, while the importance of ES for human well-being is nowhere as evident as in cities. Urban challenges such as air pollution, noise and heat can be moderated by urban green space (UGS), simultaneously providing multiple other services. However, available methods to quantify ES cannot typically deal with the high spatial and thematic resolution land cover data that are needed to better understand ES supply in...

Data from: Visuomotor adaptation: how forgetting keeps us conservative

Katinka Van Der Kooij, Eli Brenner, Robert J. Van Beers & Jeroen B. J. Smeets
Even when provided with feedback after every movement, adaptation levels off before biases are completely removed. Incomplete adaptation has recently been attributed to forgetting: the adaptation is already partially forgotten by the time the next movement is made. Here we test whether this idea is correct. If so, the final level of adaptation is determined by a balance between learning and forgetting. Because we learn from perceived errors, scaling these errors by a magnification factor...

Data from: Evolutionary ecology of beta-lactam gene clusters in animals

Wouter Suring, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Blanke, Janine Marien, Tim Schol, Valeria Agamennone, Anna Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Matty P. Berg, Consortium, The 1KITE Basal Hexapod, Bram Brouwer, Nico M. Van Straalen, Dick Roelofs & Abraham Brouwer
Beta-lactam biosynthesis was thought to occur only in fungi and bacteria, but we recently reported the presence of isopenicillin N synthase in a soil-dwelling animal, Folsomia candida. However, it has remained unclear whether this gene is part of a larger beta-lactam biosynthesis pathway and how widespread the occurrence of penicillin biosynthesis is among animals. Here, we analyzed the distribution of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes throughout the animal kingdom and identified a beta-lactam gene cluster in the...

Data from: Order of arrival structures arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of plants

Gijsbert D. A. Werner & E. Toby Kiers
Priority effects – the impact of a species' arrival on subsequent community development – have been shown to influence species composition in many organisms. Whether priority effects among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) structure fungal root communities is not well understood. Here, we investigated whether priority effects influence the success of two closely related AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus aggregatum), hypothesizing that a resident AMF suppresses invader success, this effect is time-dependent and a resident...

Data from: Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the Personalized Advantage Index approach

Marcus J. H. Huibers, Zachary D. Cohen, Lotte H. J. M. Lemmens, Arnoud Arntz, Frenk P. M. L. Peeters, Pim Cuijpers & Robert J. DeRubeis
Introduction: Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Methods: 134...

Data from: Genetic pollution of a threatened native crested newt species through hybridization with an invasive congener in the Netherlands

Willem R. M. Meilink, Jan W. Arntzen, Jeroen J. C. W. Van Delft, Ben Wielstra & Willem R.M. Meilink
Genetic pollution of a native species through hybridization with an invasive species poses an insidious conservation threat. To expose genetic pollution, molecular methods employing multilocus data are required. We present a case study of genetic pollution via hybridization of a native crested newt species, Triturus cristatus, by the invasive T. carnifex on the Veluwe in the Netherlands. We sequenced 50 nuclear markers by next generation sequencing and one mitochondrial marker by Sanger sequencing for four...

Data from: Stress‐induced secondary leaves of a boreal deciduous shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) overwinter then regain activity the following growing season

Jarle W. Bjerke, Grzegorz Wierzbinski, Hans Tømmervik, Gareth K. Phoenix & Stef Bokhorst
The ericoid shrub Vaccinium myrtillus is one of several deciduous boreal plants that respond to larval defoliation by compensatory production of a new set of leaves within the same growing season soon after defoliation. This new set is termed as ‘secondary leaves’. The physiological performance and longevity of secondary leaves is poorly understood. Following a multi‐year larval outbreak in boreal Norway, we therefore monitored the fate of the secondary leaves from 2014 to 2016. We...

Data from: Selection for associative learning of color stimuli reveals correlated evolution of this learning ability across multiple stimuli and rewards.

Maartje Liefting, Katja M. Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M Smid, Jacintha Ellers & Hans M. Smid
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with...

Data from: Faunal community consequence of interspecific bark trait dissimilarity in early-stage decomposing logs

Juan Zuo, Matty Berg, Roy Klein, Jasper Nusselder, Gert Neurink, Orsi Decker, Mariet M. Hefting, Ute Sass-Klaassen, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Leo Goudzwaard, Jurgen Van Hal, Frank J. Sterck, Lourens Poorter, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & Matty P. Berg
Dead tree trunks have significant ecosystem functions related to biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles. When lying on the soil surface, they are colonized by an array of invertebrate fauna, but what determines their community composition is still unclear. We apply community assembly theory to colonization of tree logs by invertebrates. During early decomposition, the attached bark is critically important as an environment filter for community assembly through habitat provision. Specifically, we hypothesized that the more dissimilar...

Data from: Scaling up flammability from individual leaves to fuel beds

Saskia Grootemaat, Ian Wright, Peter Van Bodegom, Johannes Cornelissen, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Ian J. Wright & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
Wildfires play an important role in vegetation composition and structure, nutrient fluxes, human health and wealth, and are interlinked with climate change. Plants have an influence on wildfire behaviour and predicting this feedback is a high research priority. For upscaling from leaf traits to wildfire behaviour we need to know if the same leaf traits are important for the flammability of (i) individual leaves, and (ii) multiple leaves packed in fuel beds. Based on a...

Data from: Tracking plant preference for higher-quality mycorrhizal symbionts under varying CO conditions over multiple generations

Gijsbert D. A. Werner, Yeling Zhou, Corné M. J. Pieterse & E. Toby Kiers
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferential allocations from plants to symbionts may vary with environmental context, particularly when resource availability affects the relative value of symbiotic services. We ask how differences in atmospheric CO2-levels...

Data from: Internet blogs, polar bears, and climate-change denial by proxy

Jeffrey A. Harvey, Daphne Van Den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J. M. Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C. Amstrup, Michael E. Mann, Rascha J M Nuijten, Michael E Mann, Jeffrey A Harvey, Thomas W Crowther & Steven C Amstrup
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence....

Data from: Spatial structure and interspecific cooperation: theory and an empirical test using the mycorrhizal mutualism

Erik Verbruggen, Claire El Mouden, Jan Jansa, Geert Akkermans, Heike Bücking, Stuart A. West & E. Toby Kiers
Explaining mutualistic cooperation between species remains a major challenge for evolutionary biology. Why cooperate if defection potentially reaps greater benefits? It is commonly assumed that spatial structure (limited dispersal) aligns the interests of mutualistic partners. But does spatial structure consistently promote cooperation? Here, we formally model the role of spatial structure in maintaining mutualism. We show theoretically that spatial structure can actually disfavour cooperation by limiting the suite of potential partners. The effect of spatial...

Data from: Multicellular group formation in response to predators in the alga Chlorella vulgaris

Roberta M. Fisher, Tom Bell, Stuart A. West, R. M. Fisher & S. A. West
A key step in the evolution of multicellular organisms is the formation of cooperative multicellular groups. It has been suggested that predation pressure may promote multicellular group formation in some algae and bacteria, with cells forming groups to lower their chance of being eaten. We use the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and the protist Tetrahymena thermophila to test whether predation pressure can initiate the formation of colonies. We found that: (1) either predators or just...

Data from: Diversity in form and function: vertical distribution of soil fauna mediates multidimensional trait variation

Jacintha Ellers, Matty P. Berg, André T.C. Dias, Simone Fontana, Astra Ooms & Marco Moretti
1. It has been widely recognized that species show extensive variation in form and function. Based on species’ attributes they can be positioned along major axes of variation, which are often defined by life history traits, such as number of offspring, age at maturity or generation time. Less emphasis has been given in this respect to tolerance traits, especially to resistance to abiotic stress conditions, which often determine community (dis)assembly and distribution. 2. Soil fauna...

Data from: Functional diversity of Collembola is reduced in soils subjected to short-term, but not long-term, geothermal warming

Martin Holmstrup, Bodil K. Ehlers, Stine Slotsbo, Krassimira Ilieva-Makulec, Bjarni Diðrik Sigurðsson, Niki I. Leblans, Jacintha Ellers, Matty P. Berg, Niki I. W. Leblans & Bjarni D. Sigurdsson
1. Human activities have caused global changes of atmospheric chemistry resulting in increased temperature especially in the colder regions of the northern hemisphere. Since warming of the environment can have drastic effects on terrestrial ecosystems it is important to experimentally evaluate the extent of such effects in long-term field-based experiments. In the present study we make use of both recent (short-term) and long-term geothermal warming of Icelandic soils to examine the responses of Collembola, an...

Data from: Decoupled diversity dynamics in green and brown webs during primary succession in a salt marsh

Maarten Schrama, Fons Van Der Plas, Matty P. Berg & Han Olff
Terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by a strong functional connection between the green (plant–herbivore-based) and brown (detritus–detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession...

Data from: Intense competition between arbuscular mycorrhizal mutualists in an in vitro root microbiome negatively affects total fungal abundance

Daniel J. P. Engelmoer, Jocelyn E. Behm, E. Toby Kiers & E. Toby Kiers
The root microbiome is composed of an incredibly diverse microbial community that provides services to the plant. A major question in rhizosphere research is how species in root microbiome communities interact with each other and their host. In the nutrient mutualism between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), competition often leads to certain species dominating host colonization, with the outcome being dependent on environmental conditions. In the past, it has been difficult to quantify...

Data from: Large and fast human pyramidal neurons associate with intelligence

Natalia A Goriounova, Djai B Heyer, René Wilbers, Matthijs B Verhoog, Michele Giugliano, Christophe Verbist, Joshua Obermayer, Amber Kerkhofs, Harriët Smeding, Maaike Verberne, Sander Idema, Johannes C Baayen, Anton W Pieneman, Christiaan PJ De Kock, Martin Klein & Huibert D Mansvelder
It is generally assumed that human intelligence relies on efficient processing by neurons in our brain. Although gray matter thickness and activity of temporal and frontal cortical areas correlate with IQ scores, no direct evidence exists that links structural and physiological properties of neurons to human intelligence. Here, we find that high IQ scores and large temporal cortical thickness associate with larger, more complex dendrites of human pyramidal neurons. We show in silico that larger...

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