91 Works

Data from: Internet blogs, polar bears, and climate-change denial by proxy

Jeffrey A. Harvey, Daphne Van Den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J. M. Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C. Amstrup & Michael E. Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence....

Data from: Ex situ diet influences the bacterial community associated with the skin of red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas)

Rachael E. Antwis, Rachel L. Haworth, Daniel J. P. Engelmoer, Victoria Ogilvy, Andrea L. Fidgett & Richard F. Preziosi
Amphibians support symbiotic bacterial communities on their skin that protect against a range of infectious pathogens, including the amphibian chytrid fungus. The conditions under which amphibians are maintained in captivity (e.g. diet, substrate, enrichment) in ex situ conservation programmes may affect the composition of the bacterial community. In addition, ex situ amphibian populations may support different bacterial communities in comparison to in situ populations of the same species. This could have implications for the suitability...

Data from: Selection for associative learning of color stimuli reveals correlated evolution of this learning ability across multiple stimuli and rewards.

Maartje Liefting, Katja M. Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M. Smid & Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with...

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: Sharp acoustic boundaries across an altitudinal avian hybrid zone despite asymmetric introgression

Wouter Halfwerk, Caroline Dingle, Dusan M. Brinkhuizen, Jelmer W. Poelstra, Jan Komdeur & Hans Slabbekoorn
Birdsong is a sexually selected trait that could play an important evolutionary role when related taxa come into secondary contact. Many songbird species however learn their songs through copying one or more tutors, which complicates the evolutionary outcome of such contact. Two subspecies of a presumed vocal learner, the grey-breasted wood-wren (Henicorhina leucophrys), replace each other altitudinally across the western slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. These subspecies are morphologically very similar, but show striking differences...

Data from: Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects

Daniel Hering, Jukka Aroviita, Annette Baattrup-Pedersen, Karel Brabec, Tom Buijse, Frauke Ecke, Nikolai Friberg, Marek Gielczewski, Kathrin Januschke, Jan Köhler, Benjamin Kupilas, Armin W. Lorenz, Susanne Muhar, Amael Paillex, Michaela Poppe, Torsten Schmidt, Stefan Schmutz, Jan Vermaat, Piet F. M. Verdonschot, Ralf C. M. Verdonschot, Jochem Kail & Christian Wolter
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by...

Data from: Hidden female physiological resistance to male accessory gland substances in a simultaneous hermaphrodite

Monica Lodi & Joris M. Koene
To increase fertilization chances compared to rivals, males are favoured to transfer accessory gland proteins to females during mating. These substances, by influencing female physiology, cause alteration of her sperm usage and remating rate. Simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails with love-darts are a case in point. During courtship, a love-dart is pierced through the partner's body wall, thereby introducing accessory mucous gland products. This mucus physiologically increases paternity by inhibiting the digestion of donated sperm. The...

Data from: On the effect specificity of accessory gland products transferred by the love-dart of land snails

Monica Lodi & Joris M. Koene
Background: Sexual selection favours the evolution of male bioactive substances transferred during mating to enhance male reproductive success by affecting female physiology. These effects are mainly well documented for separate-sexed species. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, one of the most peculiar examples of transfer of such substances is via stabbing a so-called love-dart in land snails. This calcareous stylet delivers mucous products produced by accessory glands into the mate's haemolymph. In Cornu aspersum, this mucus temporarily causes...

Non-negligible contribution of subordinates in community-level litter decomposition: deciduous trees in an evergreen world

Chao Guo, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Bin Tuo, Hang Ci & En-Rong Yan
1. Subordinates have relatively low abundance compared to dominants, but they may contribute substantially to functional diversity and ecosystem functions, especially if they differ strongly from the dominants in key traits. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon can be applied to litter decomposition as a key carbon and nutrient cycling process. 2. We hypothesized that species’ litter mass-weighted predictions of community-level litter decomposition based on the rates of dominants only would deviate strongly from observed...

Data from: Cognitive reserve and clinical progression in Alzheimer’s disease: a paradoxical relationship

Anna C. Van Loenhoud, Wiesje M. Van Der Flier, Alle M. Wink, Ellen Dicks, Colin Groot, Jos Twisk, Frederik Barkhof, Philip Scheltens & Rik Ossenkoppele
Objective: To investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve (CR) and clinical progression across the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) spectrum. Methods: We selected 839 Aβ-positive subjects with normal cognition (NC, n=175), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=437) or AD dementia (n=227) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. CR was quantified using standardized residuals (W-scores) from a (covariate-adjusted) linear regression with global cognition (ADAS-Cog 13) as an independent variable-of-interest, and either gray matter volumes or white matter hyperintensity volume...

Data from: Visuomotor adaptation: how forgetting keeps us conservative

Katinka Van Der Kooij, Eli Brenner, Robert J. Van Beers & Jeroen B. J. Smeets
Even when provided with feedback after every movement, adaptation levels off before biases are completely removed. Incomplete adaptation has recently been attributed to forgetting: the adaptation is already partially forgotten by the time the next movement is made. Here we test whether this idea is correct. If so, the final level of adaptation is determined by a balance between learning and forgetting. Because we learn from perceived errors, scaling these errors by a magnification factor...

Data from: Community assembly, species richness and nestedness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agricultural soils

Erik Verbruggen, Marcel G. A. Van Der Heijden, James T. Weedon, George A. Kowalchuk & Wilfred F. M. Röling
Understanding how communities assemble is a central goal of ecology. This is particularly relevant for communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), because the community composition of these beneficial plant symbionts influences important ecosystem processes. Moreover, AMF may be used as sensitive indicators of ecological soil quality if they respond to environmental variation in a predictable way. Here we use a molecular profiling technique (T-RFLP of 25S rRNA gene fragments) to test which factors determine AM...

Environmental and morphological constraints interact to drive the evolution of communication signals in frogs

Matías Muñoz, Sandra Goutte, Jacintha Ellers & Wouter Halfwerk
Animals show a rich diversity of signals and displays. Among the many selective forces driving the evolution of communication between individuals, one widely recognized factor is the structure of the environment in which signals are produced, transmitted and received. In particular, animals communicating by sounds often emit acoustic signals from specific locations, such as high up in the air, from the ground or in the water. The properties of these different display sites will impose...

Multiple abiotic and biotic drivers of long-term wood decomposition within and among species in semiarid inland dunes: a dual role for stem diameter

Enkhmaa Erdenebileg, Wang Congwen, Xuehua Ye, Qingguo Cui, Juan Du, Zhenying Huang, Guofang Liu & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
This is wood decomposition data conducted in an semiarid inland dune including mass loss, initial wood traits and k values of combinations between five diameter classes and four shrub species under different treatments including UV and litter position. We found that after 34 months of in situ incubation, the mass loss of buried woody litters was three times faster than those of suspended and surface woody litters (53.5 ± 2.7 %, 17.0 ± 1.0 %...

Data from: The cover uncovered: bark control over wood decomposition

Gbadamassi G.O. Dossa, Douglas Schaefer, Jiao-Lin Zhang, Jian-Ping Tao, Kun-Fang Cao, Richard T. Corlett, Anthony B. Cunningham, Jian-Chu Xu, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Rhett D. Harrison & Gbadamassi G. O. Dossa
1. Woody debris (WD) represents a globally significant carbon stock and its decomposition returns nutrients to the soil while providing habitat to microbes, plants and animals. Understanding what drives WD decomposition is therefore important. 2. WD decomposition rates differ greatly among species. However, the role of bark in the process remains poorly known. 3. We ask how, and how much, interspecific variation in bark functional traits related to growth and protection have afterlife effects on...

Data from: Generic indicators for loss of resilience before a tipping point leading to population collapse

Lei Dai, Daan Vorselen, Kirill S. Korolev & Jeff Gore
Theory predicts that the approach of catastrophic thresholds in natural systems (e.g., ecosystems, the climate) may result in an increasingly slow recovery from small perturbations, a phenomenon called critical slowing down. We used replicate laboratory populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for direct observation of critical slowing down before population collapse. We mapped the bifurcation diagram experimentally and found that the populations became more vulnerable to disturbance closer to the tipping point. Fluctuations of...

Data from: Differential effects of climate warming on reproduction and functional responses on insects in the fourth trophic level

Cong Chen, Rieta Gols, Arjen Biere & Jeffrey A. Harvey
1. Understanding effects of Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) on species interactions is essential for predicting community responses to climate change. However, while effects of AGW on resource-consumer interactions at the first- and second trophic level have been well studied, little is known about effects on interactions at higher trophic levels at the terminal end of food chains (e.g. in the third and fourth trophic levels). 2. Here, we examined the effects of temperature variability by...

Data from: Tracking plant preference for higher-quality mycorrhizal symbionts under varying CO conditions over multiple generations

Gijsbert D. A. Werner, Yeling Zhou, Corné M. J. Pieterse & E. Toby Kiers
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferential allocations from plants to symbionts may vary with environmental context, particularly when resource availability affects the relative value of symbiotic services. We ask how differences in atmospheric CO2-levels...

Data from: Understanding nutrient dynamics in an African savanna: local biotic interactions outweigh a major regional rainfall gradient

Michiel P. Veldhuis, Anneleen Hulshof, Wimke Fokkema, Matty P. Berg & Han Olff
Nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems has been found to vary along regional climatic and soil gradients and drive variation in plant community composition and vegetation structure. However, more local biotic feedbacks also affect nutrient availability, but their importance in determining vegetation structure relative to regional drivers is yet unclear. Mesic African savannas form a transition zone between the dry grasslands with relatively low nitrogen availability (indicated by low plant N:P ratios) and the wet woodlands...

Data from: C:N:P stoichiometry of Artemisia species and close relatives across northern China: unraveling effects of climate, soil and taxonomy

Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang, Keliang Zhang & Johannes Hans C. Cornelissen
1. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometries play critical roles in the function and structure of ecosystems by affecting important ecological processes. Yet, most studies to date have concentrated on foliar stoichiometry of phylogenetically distantly related species. 2. Here, we hypothesized that (i) plant stoichiometry of closely related species still shows biogeographic patterns because of the geographic patterns of abiotic environment at the regional scale and (ii) even related species still differ strongly...

Data from: How close do we live to water? a global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies

Matti Kummu, Hans De Moel, Philip J. Ward & Olli Varis
Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations...

Data from: Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi–isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) assignment approach

Thor Veen, Mårten B. Hjernquist, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg, Keith A. Hobson, Eelke Folmer, Laura Font & Marcel Klaassen
Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival,...

Data from: Tetranychus evansi spider mite populations suppress tomato defences to varying degrees

Bram Knegt, Tomas Meijer, Merijn Kant, E. Toby Kiers & Martijn Egas
Plant defence suppression is an offensive strategy of herbivores, in which they manipulate plant physiological processes to increase their performance. Paradoxically, defence suppression does not always benefit the defence-suppressing herbivores, because lowered plant defences can also enhance the performance of competing herbivores and can expose herbivores to increased predation. Suppression of plant defence may therefore entail considerable ecological costs depending on the presence of competitors and natural enemies in a community. Hence, we hypothesize that...

Data from: Can social partnerships influence the microbiome? insights from ant farmers and their trophobiont mutualists.

Aniek B.F. Ivens, Alice Gadau, E. Toby Kiers, Daniel J.C. Kronauer, Aniek B. F. Ivens & Daniel J. C. Kronauer
Mutualistic interactions with microbes have played a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of animal hosts. However, it is unclear what factors are most important in influencing particular host-microbe associations. While closely related animal species may have more similar microbiota than distantly related ones due to phylogenetic contingencies, social partnerships with other organisms, such as those in which one animal farms another, may also influence an organism’s symbiotic microbiome. We studied a mutualistic network...

Data from: Mapping wood production in European forests

Pieter J. Verkerk, Christian Levers, Tobias Kuemmerle, Marcus Lindner, Ruben Valbuena, Peter H. Verburg & Sergey Zudin
Wood production is an important forest use, impacting a range of other ecosystem services. However, information on the spatial patterns in wood production is limited and often available only for larger administrative units. In this study, we developed high-resolution wood production maps for European forests. We collected wood production statistics for 29 European countries from 2000 to 2010, as well as comprehensive sets of biophysical and socioeconomic location factors. We used regression analyses to produce...

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  • VU University Amsterdam
  • University of Groningen
  • Leiden University
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
  • Wageningen University & Research
  • Macquarie University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • University of Antwerp
  • VU University Medical Center
  • Aarhus University