62 Works

Habitat complexity dampens selection on prey activity level

Carl Keiser, Spencer Ingley, Benjamin Toscano, Inon Scharf & Jonathan Pruitt
Conspecific prey individuals often exhibit persistent differences in behavior (i.e., animal personality) and consequently vary in their susceptibility to predation. How this form of selection varies across environmental contexts is essential to predicting ecological and evolutionary dynamics, yet remains currently unresolved. Here, we use three separate predator–prey systems (sea star–snail, wolf spider–cricket, and jumping spider–cricket) to independently examine how habitat structural complexity influences the selection that predators impose on prey behavioral types. Prior to conducting...

Local extinction risk under climate change in a neotropical asymmetrically dispersed epiphyte

Miguel Acevedo, Miguel Acevedo, Lydia Beaudrot, Elvia Melendez-Ackerman & Raymond Tremblay
1. The long-term fate of populations experiencing disequilibrium conditions with their environment will ultimately depend on how local colonization and extinction dynamics respond to abiotic conditions (e.g. temperature and rainfall), dispersal limitation and biotic interactions (e.g. competition, facilitation, or interactions with natural enemies). Understanding how these factors influence distributional dynamics under climate change is a major knowledge gap, particularly for small ranged and dispersal-limited plant species, which are at higher risk of extinction. Epiphytes are...

Host identity and symbiotic association affects the genetic and taxonomic diversity of the clownfish-hosting sea anemone microbiome

Benjamin Titus, Robert Laroche, Estafania Rodriguez, Herman Wirshing & Christopher Meyer
All eukaryotic life engages in symbioses with a diverse community of bacteria that are essential for performing basic life functions. In many cases, eukaryotic organisms form additional symbioses with other macroscopic eukaryotes. The tightly-linked physical interactions that characterize many macroscopic symbioses creates opportunities for microbial transfer, which likely affects the diversity and function of individual microbiomes, and may ultimately lead to microbiome convergence between distantly related taxa. Here, we sequence the microbiomes of five species...

A multivariate approach reveals diversity of ontogenetic niche shifts across taxonomic and functional groups

Volker Rudolf
Shifts in the fundamental and realize niche of individuals during their ontogeny are ubiquitous in nature, but we know little about what aspects of the niche change and how these changes vary across species within communities. Yet, this knowledge is essential to predict the dynamics of populations and communities and how they respond to environmental change. Here I introduce a range of metrics to describe different aspects of shifts in the realized trophic niche of...

Strong and weak cross-sex correlations govern the quantitative-genetic architecture of social group choice in Drosophila melanogaster

Julia Saltz
When genotypes differ in niche-constructing traits, genotypes are expected to differ in which environments they experience, providing a novel causal relationship between genotypes, environments, and behavior. Such genetic variation in niche construction (or, more precisely, environment construction) is predicted to be especially important for social environments, yet the quantitative-genetic parameters governing such variation is still poorly understood. Here, we examine genetic variation and cross-sex genetic correlations for social environment-constructing behaviors. We focus on whether genetic...

Sex‐differences in disease avoidance behavior vary across modes of pathogen exposure

Carl N. Keiser, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Matthew C. Luksik & Julia B. Saltz
Sex‐differences in disease susceptibility are widespread, and these disparities are often compounded in cases where sexual dimorphism increases exposure risk to parasites for one sex more than the other. Studies rarely link sex‐differences in disease susceptibility to sex‐differences in infection avoidance behavior. Yet, understanding the intersection of hosts’ susceptibility to infection and infection avoidance behavior is essential to predicting infection risk variation. Here, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a generalist entomopathogenic fungus,...

Temporal isolation between sympatric host plants cascades across multiple trophic levels of host-associated insects

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, James Ott & Scott Egan
Phenological differences between host plants can promote temporal isolation among host-associated populations of insects with life cycles tightly coupled to plant phenology. Divergence in the timing of spring budbreak between two sympatric sister oak species has been shown to promote temporal isolation between host plants and their host-associated populations of a cynipid gall wasp. Here we examined the generality of this mechanism by testing the hypothesis of cascading temporal isolation for five additional gall-formers and...

Data from: Mismatches between the resources for adult herbivores and their offspring suggest invasive Spartina alterniflora is an ecological trap

Ke-Ke Sun, Wen-Sheng Yu, Jia-Jia Jiang, Christina Richards, Evan Siemann, Jun Ma, Bo Li & Rui-Ting Ju
1. Plant invasions can alter the behavior and performance of native herbivorous insects because the insects are evolutionarily naïve to the novel plants. An ecological trap results when native insects prefer invasive plants over their native hosts but suffer reduced fitness on the invaders. Although such traps are predicted to occur frequently given the prevalence of invasive plants, empirical support for ecological traps and their underlying mechanisms remains sparse. 2. We examined the potential for...

Data from: Shifts in phenological mean and synchrony interact to shape competitive outcomes

Shannon K. Carter & Volker H. Rudolf
Climate change-induced phenological shifts are ubiquitous and have the potential to disrupt natural communities by changing the timing of species interactions. Shifts in first and/or mean phenological date are well documented, but recent studies indicate that shifts in synchrony (individual variation around these metrics) can be just as common. However, we know little about how both types of phenological shifts interact to affect species interactions and natural communities. Here, we experimentally manipulated the hatching phenologies...

Data from: Macaque monkeys perceive the flash lag illusion

Manivannan Subramaniyan, Alexander S. Ecker, Philipp Berens & Andreas S. Tolias
Transmission of neural signals in the brain takes time due to the slow biological mechanisms that mediate it. During such delays, the position of moving objects can change substantially. The brain could use statistical regularities in the natural world to compensate neural delays and represent moving stimuli closer to real time. This possibility has been explored in the context of the flash lag illusion, where a briefly flashed stimulus in alignment with a moving one...

Data from: Understanding the recruitment response of juvenile Neotropical trees to logging intensity using functional traits

J. Aaron Hogan, Bruno Hérault, Bénédicte Bachelot, Anaїs Gorel, Marianne Jounieaux & Christopher Baraloto
Selective-logging remains a widespread practice in tropical forests, yet the long-term effects of timber-harvest on juvenile tree (i.e., sapling) recruitment across the hundreds of species occurring in most tropical forests, remain difficult to predict. This uncertainty could potentially exacerbate threats to some of the thousands of timber-valuable tree species in the Amazon. Our objective was to determine to what extent long-term responses of tree species regeneration in logged forests can be explained by their functional...

Data from: Fruiting phenology is linked to rainfall variability in a tropical rain forest

Amy E. Dunham, Onja H. Razafindratsima, Paul Rakotonirina, Patricia C. Wright. & Patricia C. Wright
As the influence of climate change on tropical forests becomes apparent, more studies are needed to understand how changes in climatic variables like rainfall are likely to affect tree phenology. Using a twelve-year dataset (2005–2016), we studied the impact of seasonal rainfall patterns on the fruiting phenology of 69 tree species in the rain forest of southeastern Madagascar. We found that average annual rainfall in this region has increased by >800mm (23%) during this period...

Data from: Coestimating reticulate phylogenies and gene trees from multilocus sequence data

Dingqiao Wen & Luay Nakhleh
The multispecies network coalescent (MSNC) is a stochastic process that captures how gene trees grow within the branches of a phylogenetic network. Coupling the MSNC with a stochastic mutational process that operates along the branches of the gene trees gives rise to a generative model of how multiple loci from within and across species evolve in the presence of both incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and reticulation (e.g., hybridization). We report on a Bayesian method for...

Data from: Seasonal population and individual niche dynamics in a tetra fish in the Pantanal wetlands

Raul Costa-Pereira, Luiz E. R. Tavares, Plínio Barbosa De Camargo & Márcio Silva Araújo
In seasonal tropical regions, rainfall and/or temporary floods during the wet season generally increase the abundance and diversity of food resources to many consumers as compared to the dry season. Therefore, seasonality can affect intraspecific competition and ecological opportunity, which are two important ecological mechanisms underlying population and individual niche variations. Here, we took advantage of the strong seasonality in the Pantanal wetlands to investigate how within- and between-individual diet variations relate to seasonal population...

Data from: Bayesian inference of reticulate phylogenies under the multispecies network coalescent

Luay Nakhleh, Dingqiao Wen & Yun Yu
The multispecies coalescent (MSC) is a statistical framework that models how gene genealogies grow within the branches of a species tree. The field of computational phylogenetics has witnessed an explosion in the development of methods for species tree inference under MSC, owing mainly to the accumulating evidence of incomplete lineage sorting in phylogenomic analyses. However, the evolutionary history of a set of genomes, or species, could be reticulate due to the occurrence of evolutionary processes...

Data from: A test of genomic modularity among life-history adaptations promoting speciation with gene flow

Gregory Ragland, Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Daniel A. Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Gregory J. Ragland
Speciation with gene flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or “modularity” among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between...

Data from: Faster processing of moving compared to flashed bars in awake macaque V1 provides a neural correlate of the flash lag illusion

Manivannan Subramaniyan, Alexander S. Ecker, Saumil S. Patel, R. James Cotton, Matthias Bethge, Xaq Pitkow, Philipp Berens & Andreas S. Tolias
When the brain has determined the position of a moving object, due to anatomical and processing delays, the object will have already moved to a new location. Given the statistical regularities present in natural motion, the brain may have acquired compensatory mechanisms to minimize the mismatch between the perceived and the real position of moving objects. A well-known visual illusion — the flash lag effect — points towards such a possibility. Although many psychophysical models...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

Data from: Drivers of individual niche variation in coexisting species

Raul Costa-Pereira, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Franco L. Souza, Marcio S. Araujo & Volker H. W. Rudolf
1. Although neglected by classic niche theory, individual variation is now recognized as a prevalent phenomenon in nature with evolutionary and ecological relevance. Recent theory suggests that differences in individual variation across competitors can affect species coexistence and community patterns. However, the degree of individual variation is flexible across wild populations and we still know little about the ecological drivers of this variation across populations of single species and, especially, across coexisting species. 2. Here...

Data from: Non-linear effects of phenological shifts link inter-annual variation to species interactions

Volker H.W. Rudolf & Volker H. W. Rudolf
1. The vast majority of species interactions are seasonally structured and depend on species’ relative phenologies. However, differences in the phenologies of species naturally vary across years and are altered by ongoing climate change around the world. 2. By combining experiments that shifted the relative hatching of two competing tadpole species across a productivity gradient with simulations of inter-annual variation in arrival times I tested how phenological variation across years can alter the strength and...

Data from: Genomic differentiation during speciation-with-gene-flow: comparing geographic and host-related variation in divergent life history adaptation in Rhagoletis pomonella

Meredith M. Doellman, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Peter J. Meyers, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M. Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, James J. Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder, Daniel Hahn, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Meredith Doellman, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Mary Glover, Jeffrey Feder, Glen Hood, Thomas Powell … & Gregory Ragland
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella. Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a...

Data from: Genomic region detection via Spatial Convex Clustering

John Nagorski & Genevera I. Allen
Several modern genomic technologies, such as DNA-Methylation arrays, measure spatially registered probes that number in the hundreds of thousands across multiple chromosomes. The measured probes are by themselves less interesting scientifically; instead scientists seek to discover biologically interpretable genomic regions comprised of contiguous groups of probes which may act as biomarkers of disease or serve as a dimension-reducing pre-processing step for downstream analyses. In this paper, we introduce an unsupervised feature learning technique which maps...

Data from: Priority effects within coinfected hosts can drive unexpected population-scale patterns of parasite prevalence

Patrick A. Clay, Michael H. Cortez, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Organisms are frequently coinfected by multiple parasite strains and species, and interactions between parasites within hosts are known to influence parasite prevalence and diversity, as well as epidemic timing. Importantly, interactions between coinfecting parasites can be affected by the order in which they infect hosts (i.e. within-host priority effects). In this study, we use a single-host, two-pathogen, SI model with environmental transmission to explore how within-host priority effects scale up to alter host population-scale infection...

Data from: Trophic structure alters consequences of environmental warming

Volker H.W. Rudolf, Amber Roman & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Climate warming can directly affect traits and demographic rates of organisms. However, individuals are embedded in complex networks of ecological interactions with other members of the community, allowing for a range of direct and indirect effects that depend on the trophic structure of the community. Here we show that effects of warming (i.e. increase in mean temperature) on a given species can strongly depend on the community context and trophic complexity of the system. Specifically,...

Data from: Allometric scaling of indirect effects: body size ratios predict non-consumptive effects in multi-predator systems

Lauren Krenek & Volker H. W. Rudolf
1. Non-consumptive effects (NCES) frequently lead to non-independent effects of multiple predators. While such emergent predator effects are ubiquitous in natural communities, the strength of these effects varies among studies and systems, making it difficult to predict a priory how changes in predator diversity influence prey suppression. Thus, identifying general scaling rules which can explain this variation of non-independent effects is vital for modeling natural communities and how they respond to biodiversity loss. 2. Body...

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  • Rice University
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