94 Works

Data from: Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation

Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Thomas L. Parchman, J. Spencer Johnston, C. Alex Buerkle, Jeffrey L. Feder, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander, Scott P. Egan, Bernard J. Crespi & Patrik Nosil
Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess...

Data from: Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow

Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Lauren Assour, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Glen R. Hood, Scott Emrich, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H.Q. Powell
Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple...

Data from: Legacy effects of developmental stages determine the functional role of predators

Volker H.W. Rudolf & Benjamin G. Van Allen
Predators are instrumental in structuring natural communities and ecosystem processes. The strong effects of predators are often attributed to their high trophic position in the food web. However, most predators have to grow and move up the food chain before reaching their final trophic position and during this developmental process, their traits, interactions, and abundances change. Here we show that this process of “moving up” the food chain during development strongly determines the ecological role...

Data from: Can't live with them, can't live without them? Balancing mating and competition in two-sex populations

Aldo Compagnoni, Kenneth Steigman & Tom E. X. Miller
Two-sex populations are usually studied through frequency-dependent models that describe how sex ratio affects mating, recruitment, and population growth. However, in two-sex populations, mating and recruitment should also be affected by density and by its interactions with sex ratio. Density may have positive effects on mating (Allee effects) but negative effects on other demographic processes. In this study, we quantified how positive and negative inter-sexual interactions balance in two-sex populations. Using a dioecious grass (Poa...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

Data from: Shifts in phenological mean and synchrony interact to shape competitive outcomes

Shannon K. Carter & Volker H. Rudolf
Climate change-induced phenological shifts are ubiquitous and have the potential to disrupt natural communities by changing the timing of species interactions. Shifts in first and/or mean phenological date are well documented, but recent studies indicate that shifts in synchrony (individual variation around these metrics) can be just as common. However, we know little about how both types of phenological shifts interact to affect species interactions and natural communities. Here, we experimentally manipulated the hatching phenologies...

Data from: Root feeding larvae increase their performance by inducing leaf volatiles that attract aboveground conspecific adults

Xiao Sun, Evan Siemann, Zhen Liu, Qiyun Wang, Dingli Wang, Wei Huang, Chujun Zhang & Jianqing Ding
1.Herbivore‐induced changes in plant volatile emissions mediate above‐belowground interactions by determining host plant colonization of different herbivores. By changing shoot‐emitted volatiles, belowground herbivores may use the plant to extend their capacity to interact with aboveground con‐ and heterospecifics. 2.We investigated the attractiveness of Triadica sebifera plants infested by larvae of a specialist beetle or root‐knot nematodes to aboveground herbivores. We then determined the contribution of leaf volatiles to the observed recruitment patterns using olfactometer experiments....

Data from: Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster

Julia B. Saltz
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual’s behaviour—which is influenced by his or her genotype—can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I...

Data from: Resolving the roles of body size and species identity in driving functional diversity

Volker H. W. Rudolf, Nick L. Rasmussen, Christopher J. Dibble & Benjamin G. Van Allen
Efforts to characterize food webs have generated two influential approaches that reduce the complexity of natural communities. The traditional approach groups individuals based on their species identity, while recently-developed approaches group individuals based on their body size. While each approach has provided important insights, they have largely been used in parallel in different systems. Consequently, it remains unclear how body size and species identity interact, hampering our ability to develop a more holistic framework that...

Data from: Allometric scaling of indirect effects: body size ratios predict non-consumptive effects in multi-predator systems

Lauren Krenek & Volker H. W. Rudolf
1. Non-consumptive effects (NCES) frequently lead to non-independent effects of multiple predators. While such emergent predator effects are ubiquitous in natural communities, the strength of these effects varies among studies and systems, making it difficult to predict a priory how changes in predator diversity influence prey suppression. Thus, identifying general scaling rules which can explain this variation of non-independent effects is vital for modeling natural communities and how they respond to biodiversity loss. 2. Body...

Data from: Density dependence in demography and dispersal generates fluctuating invasion speeds

Lauren L. Sullivan, Bingtuan Li, Tom E. X. Miller, Michael G. Neubert & Allison K. Shaw
Density dependence plays an important role in population regulation and is known to generate temporal fluctuations in population density. However, the ways in which density dependence affects spatial population processes, such as species invasions, are less understood. Although classical ecological theory suggests that invasions should advance at a constant speed, empirical work is illuminating the highly variable nature of biological invasions, which often exhibit nonconstant spreading speeds, even in simple, controlled settings. Here, we explore...

Data from: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world

Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onart, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer … & Eva-Maria Geigl
The cat has long been important to human societies as a pest-control agent, object of symbolic value and companion animal, but little is known about its domestication process and early anthropogenic dispersal. Here we show, using ancient DNA analysis of geographically and temporally widespread archaeological cat remains, that both the Near Eastern and Egyptian populations of Felis silvestris lybica contributed to the gene pool of the domestic cat at different historical times. While the cat’s...

Data from: Top predators determine how biodiversity is partitioned across time and space

Benjamin G. Van Allen, Nick L. Rasmussen, Christopher J. Dibble, Patrick A. Clay, Volker H.W. Rudolf & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Natural ecosystems are shaped along two fundamental axes, space and time, but how biodiversity is partitioned along both axes is not well understood. Here, we show that the relationship between temporal and spatial biodiversity patterns can vary predictably according to habitat characteristics. By quantifying seasonal and annual changes in larval dragonfly communities across a natural predation gradient we demonstrate that variation in the identity of top predator species is associated with systematic differences in spatio-temporal...

Data from: The index case is not enough: variation among individuals, groups, and social networks modify bacterial transmission dynamics

Carl N. Keiser, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Michael J. Ziemba, Krishna S. Kothamasu & Jonathan N. Pruitt
1.The traits of the index case of an infectious disease outbreak, and the circumstances for their etiology, potentially influence the trajectory of transmission dynamics. However, these dynamics likely also depend on the traits of the individuals with whom the index case interacts. 2.We used the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola to test how the traits of the index case, group phenotypic composition, and group size interact to facilitate the transmission of a GFP-labeled cuticular bacterium. We...

Data from: Multiple natural enemies cause distance-dependent mortality at the seed-to-seedling transition

Evan C. Fricke, Joshua J. Tewksbury & Haldre S. Rogers
Specialised natural enemies maintain forest diversity by reducing tree survival in a density- or distance-dependent manner. Fungal pathogens, insects and mammals are the enemy types most commonly hypothesised to cause this phenomenon. Still, their relative importance remains largely unknown, as robust manipulative experiments have generally targeted a single enemy type and life history stage. Here, we use fungicide, insecticide and physical exclosure treatments to isolate the impacts of each enemy type on two life history...

Data from: Deadly competition and life-saving predation: the potential for alternative stable states in a stage-structured predator–prey system

Benjamin J. Toscano, Bianca R. Rombado, Volker H.W. Rudolf & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Predators often undergo complete ontogenetic diet shifts, engaging in resource competition with species that become their prey during later developmental stages. Theory posits that this mix of stage-specific competition and predation, termed life-history intraguild predation (LHIGP), can lead to alternative stable states. In one state, prey exclude predators through competition (i.e. juvenile competitive bottleneck), while in the alternative, adult predators control prey density to limit competition and foster coexistence. Nevertheless, the interactions leading to these...

A multivariate approach reveals diversity of ontogenetic niche shifts across taxonomic and functional groups

Volker Rudolf
Shifts in the fundamental and realize niche of individuals during their ontogeny are ubiquitous in nature, but we know little about what aspects of the niche change and how these changes vary across species within communities. Yet, this knowledge is essential to predict the dynamics of populations and communities and how they respond to environmental change. Here I introduce a range of metrics to describe different aspects of shifts in the realized trophic niche of...

Data from: Genotype-by-genotype epistasis for exploratory behavior in D. simulans

Julia Saltz, Allison Jaffe & Madeline Burns
Social interactions can influence the expression and underlying genetic basis of many traits. Yet, empirical investigations of indirect genetic effects (IGEs) and genotype-by-genotype epistasis—quantitative genetics parameters representing the role of genetic variation in a focal individual and its interacting partners in producing the observed trait values—are still scarce. Studying this social plasticity is notoriously challenging when individuals interact in groups, rather than (simpler) dyads. Here, we investigate the genetic architecture of social plasticity for exploratory...

Strong and weak cross-sex correlations govern the quantitative-genetic architecture of social group choice in Drosophila melanogaster

Julia Saltz
When genotypes differ in niche-constructing traits, genotypes are expected to differ in which environments they experience, providing a novel causal relationship between genotypes, environments, and behavior. Such genetic variation in niche construction (or, more precisely, environment construction) is predicted to be especially important for social environments, yet the quantitative-genetic parameters governing such variation is still poorly understood. Here, we examine genetic variation and cross-sex genetic correlations for social environment-constructing behaviors. We focus on whether genetic...

Sex‐differences in disease avoidance behavior vary across modes of pathogen exposure

Carl N. Keiser, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Matthew C. Luksik & Julia B. Saltz
Sex‐differences in disease susceptibility are widespread, and these disparities are often compounded in cases where sexual dimorphism increases exposure risk to parasites for one sex more than the other. Studies rarely link sex‐differences in disease susceptibility to sex‐differences in infection avoidance behavior. Yet, understanding the intersection of hosts’ susceptibility to infection and infection avoidance behavior is essential to predicting infection risk variation. Here, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a generalist entomopathogenic fungus,...

Data from: Cascading reproductive isolation: plant phenology drives temporal isolation among populations of a host-specific herbivore

Glen R. Hood, Linyi Zhang, Elaine G. Hu, James R. Ott & Scott P. Egan
All organisms exist within a complex network of interacting species, thus evolutionary change may have reciprocal effects on multiple taxa. Here, we demonstrate “cascading reproductive isolation,” whereby ecological differences that reduce gene flow between populations at one trophic level affect reproductive isolation (RI) among interacting species at the next trophic level. Using a combination of field, laboratory and common-garden studies and long-term herbaria records, we estimate and evaluate the relative contribution of temporal RI to...

Data from: Priority effects within coinfected hosts can drive unexpected population-scale patterns of parasite prevalence

Patrick A. Clay, Michael H. Cortez, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Organisms are frequently coinfected by multiple parasite strains and species, and interactions between parasites within hosts are known to influence parasite prevalence and diversity, as well as epidemic timing. Importantly, interactions between coinfecting parasites can be affected by the order in which they infect hosts (i.e. within-host priority effects). In this study, we use a single-host, two-pathogen, SI model with environmental transmission to explore how within-host priority effects scale up to alter host population-scale infection...

Functional diversity and redundancy of tropical forest mammals over time

Daniel Gorczynski & L. Beaudrot.
Globally, tropical rain forests comprise some of the most diverse and functionally rich ecosystems but are increasingly degraded by human impacts. Protected areas have been shown to conserve species diversity, but their effectiveness at maintaining functional diversity over time is less well known, despite the fact that functional diversity likely reveals more ecological information than taxonomic diversity. By extension, the degree to which species loss decreases functional diversity within protected areas is also unknown; functional...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Asymmetric, but opposing reductions in immigrant viability and fecundity promote reproductive isolation among host-associated populations of an insect herbivore

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, Amy Roush, Shihan Shzu, Mattheau Comerford, James Ott & Scott Egan
Immigrant inviability can contribute to reproductive isolation (RI) during ecological speciation by reducing the survival of immigrants in non-native environments. However, studies that assess the fitness consequence of immigrants moving from native to non-native environments typically fail to explore the potential role of concomitant reductions in immigrant fecundity despite recent evidence suggesting its prominent role during local adaptation. Here, we evaluate the directionality and magnitude of both immigrant viability and fecundity to RI in a...

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