43 Works

Genomic footprints of recovery in the European bison

Tom Druet, Kamil Oleński, Laurence Flori, Amandine Bertrand, Wanda Olech, Malgorzata Tokarska, Stanislaw Kaminski & Mathieu Gautier
After extinction in the wild in the beginning of the twentieth century, the European bison has been successfully recovered in two distinct genetic lines from only twelve and seven captive founders. We here aimed at characterizing the levels of realized inbreeding in these two restored lines to provide empirical insights into the genomic footprints left by population recovery from a small number of founders. To that end, we genotyped 183 European bison born over the...

Volatiles of bacteria associated with parasitoid habitats elicit distinct olfactory responses in an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid

Tim Goelen, Islam S. Sobhy, Christophe Vanderaa, Jetske G. De Boer, Frank Delvigne, Frédéric Francis, Felix Wäckers, Hans Rediers, Kevin J. Verstrepen, Tom Wenseleers, Hans Jacquemyn & Bart Lievens
1. To locate mating partners and essential resources such as food, oviposition sites and shelter, insects rely to a large extent on chemical cues. While most research has focused on cues derived from plants and insects, there is mounting evidence that indicates that microorganisms emit volatile compounds that may play an important role in insect behaviour. 2. In this study, we assessed how volatile compounds emitted by phylogenetically diverse bacteria affected the olfactory response of...

Tree diversity is key for promoting the diversity and abundance of forest‐associated taxa in Europe

Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Luc Barbaro, Hervé Jactel, Lander Baeten, Johanna Boberg, Monique Carnol, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Seid Muhie Dawud, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Hans De Wandeler, Virginie Guyot, Stephan Hättenschwiler, François‐Xavier Joly, Julia Koricheva, Harriet Milligan, Bart Muys, Diem Nguyen, Sophia Ratcliffe, Karsten Raulund‐Rasmussen, Michael Scherer‐Lorenzen, Fons Plas, J. Van Keer … & Lars Vesterdal
Plant diversity is an important driver of diversity at other trophic levels, suggesting that cascading extinctions could reduce overall biodiversity. Most evidence for positive effects of plant diversity comes from grasslands. Despite the fact that forests are hotspots of biodiversity, the importance of tree diversity, in particular its relative importance compared to other management related factors, in affecting forest‐associated taxa is not well known. To address this, we used data from 183 plots, located in...

Highlighting convergent evolution in morphological traits in response to climatic gradient in African tropical tree species: the case of genus Guibourtia Benn

Felicien Tosso, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Adeline Fayolle, Alain Hambuckers, Charles Doumenge, Honoré Agbazahou, Piet Stoffelen & Olivier Hardy
Adaptive evolution is a major driver of organism diversification but the links between phenotypic traits and environmental niche remains little documented in tropical trees. Moreover, trait-niche relationships are complex because a correlation between the traits and environmental niches displayed by a sample of species may result from (1) convergent evolution if different environmental conditions have selected different sets of traits, and/or (2) phylogenetic inertia if niche and morphological differences between species are simply function of...

Data from: Divergent evolutionary morphology of the axial skeleton as a potential key innovation in modern cetaceans

Amandine Gillet, Bruno Frederich & Eric Parmentier
Cetaceans represent the most diverse clade of extant marine tetrapods. Although restructuring of oceans could have contributed to their diversity, other factors might also be involved. Similar to ichthyosaurs and sharks, variation of morphological traits could have promoted the colonization of new ecological niches and supported their diversification. By combining morphological data describing the axial skeleton of 73 cetacean species with phylogenetic comparative methods, we demonstrate that the vertebral morphology of cetaceans is associated to...

Data from: Iterative ecological radiation and convergence during the evolutionary history of damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

Bruno Frédérich, Laurie Sorenson, Francesco Santini, Graham J. Slater & Michael E. Alfaro
Coral reef fishes represent one of the most spectacularly diverse assemblages of vertebrates on the planet, but our understanding of their mode of diversification remains limited. Here we test whether the diversity of the damselfishes (Pomacentridae), one of the most species-rich families of reef-associated fishes, was produced by a single or multiple adaptive radiation(s) during their evolutionary history. Tests of the tempo of lineage diversification using a time-calibrated phylogeny including 208 species revealed that crown...

Data from: Next-generation sequencing for rodent barcoding: species identification from fresh, degraded and environmental samples

Maxime Galan, Marie Pagès & Jean-François Cosson
Rodentia is the most diverse order among mammals, with more than 2,000 species currently described. Most of the time, species assignation is so difficult based on morphological data solely that identifying rodents at the specific level corresponds to a real challenge. In this study, we compared the applicability of 100 bp mini-barcodes from cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes to enable rodent species identification. Based on GenBank sequence datasets of 115 rodent species,...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Trait decoupling promotes evolutionary diversification of the trophic and acoustic system of damselfishes

Bruno Frédérich, Damien Olivier, Glenn Litsios, Michael E. Alfaro, Eric Parmentier, M. E. Alfaro, G. Litsios, B. Frederich, D. Olivier & E. Parmentier
Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal diversity. However, few empirical tests of this hypothesis exist. A central prediction, that the tempo of morphological evolution and ecological diversification should increase following decoupling events, remains inadequately tested. In damselfishes (Pomacentridae), a ceratomandibular ligament links the hyoid bar and lower jaws, coupling two main morphofunctional units directly involved in both feeding...

Data from: Understanding the recruitment response of juvenile Neotropical trees to logging intensity using functional traits

J. Aaron Hogan, Bruno Hérault, Bénédicte Bachelot, Anaїs Gorel, Marianne Jounieaux & Christopher Baraloto
Selective-logging remains a widespread practice in tropical forests, yet the long-term effects of timber-harvest on juvenile tree (i.e., sapling) recruitment across the hundreds of species occurring in most tropical forests, remain difficult to predict. This uncertainty could potentially exacerbate threats to some of the thousands of timber-valuable tree species in the Amazon. Our objective was to determine to what extent long-term responses of tree species regeneration in logged forests can be explained by their functional...

Data from: Timing of perineuronal nets development in the zebra finch song control system correlates with developmental song learning

Gilles Cornez, Elisabeth Jonckers, Sita M. Ter Haar, Annemie Van Der Linden, Charlotte A. Cornil & Jacques Balthazart
The appearance of perineuronal nets (PNN) represents one of the mechanisms that contribute to the closing of sensitive periods for neural plasticity. This relationship has mostly been studied in the ocular dominance model in rodents. Previous studies also indicated that PNN might control neural plasticity in the song control system (SCS) of songbirds. To further elucidate this relationship, we quantified PNN expression and their localization around parvalbumin interneurons at key time-points during ontogeny in both...

Data from: A genome-wide data assessment of the African lion (Panthera leo) population genetic structure and diversity in Tanzania

Nathalie Smitz, Olivia Jouvenet, Fredrick Ambwene Ligate, William-George Crosmary, Dennis Ikanda, Philippe Chardonnet, Alessandro Fusari, Kenny Meganck, François Gillet, Mario Melletti & Johan R. Michaux
The African lion (Panthera leo), listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Appendix II of CITES), is mainly impacted by indiscriminate killing and prey base depletion. Additionally, habitat loss by land degradation and conversion has led to the isolation of some subpopulations, potentially decreasing gene flow and increasing inbreeding depression risks. Genetic drift resulting from weakened connectivity between strongholds can affect the genetic health of the species. In the...

Data from: Body shape convergence driven by small size optimum in marine angelfishes

Bruno Frédérich, Francesco Santini, Nicolai Konow, Joseph Schnitzler, David Lecchini & Michael E. Alfaro
Convergent evolution of small body size occurs across many vertebrate clades and may reflect an evolutionary response to shared selective pressures. However it remains unclear if other aspects of phenotype undergo convergent evolution in miniaturized lineages. Here we present a comparative analysis of body size and shape evolution in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae), a reef fish family characterized by repeated transitions to small body size. We ask if lineages that evolve small sizes show convergent evolution...

Data from: From animal tracks to fine-scale movement modes: a straightforward approach for identifying multiple, spatial movement patterns

Kevin Morelle, Nils Bunnefeld, Philippe Lejeune & Steve A. Oswald
1. Thanks to developments in animal tracking technology, detailed data on the movement tracks of individual animals are now attainable for many species. However, straightforward methods to decompose individual tracks into high-resolution, spatial modes are lacking but are essential to understand what an animal is doing. 2. We developed an analytical approach that combines separately-validated methods into a straightforward tool for converting animal GPS tracks to short-range movement modes. Our three-step analytical process comprises: (1)...

Data from: Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha)

Bruno Frederich, Giuseppe Marramà, Giorgio Carnevale & Francesco Santini
Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invertebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes...

Data from: The determinants of tropical forest deciduousness: disentangling the effects of rainfall and geology in central Africa

Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo, Adeline Fayolle, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Frédéric Mortier, Vincent Freycon, Nicolas Fauvet, Suzanne Rabaud, Guillaume Cornu, Fabrice Bénédet, Jean-François Gillet, Richard Oslisly, Jean-Louis Doucet, Philippe Lejeune & Charly Favier
Understanding the environmental determinants of forests deciduousness i.e. proportion of deciduous trees in a forest stand, is of great importance when predicting the impact of ongoing global climate change on forests. In this study, we examine (i) how forest deciduousness varies in relation to rainfall and geology, and (ii) whether the influence of geology on deciduousness could be related to differences in soil fertility and water content between geological substrates. The study was conducted in...

Data from: Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid

Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Ilya M. Stenshin, Gleb N. Uspensky, Nikolay G. Zverkov & Roger B. J. Benson
During the Middle and Late Jurassic, pliosaurid plesiosaurs evolved gigantic body size and a series of craniodental adaptations that have been linked to the occupation of an apex predator niche. Cretaceous pliosaurids (i.e. Brachaucheninae) depart from this morphology, being slightly smaller and lacking the macrophagous adaptations seen in earlier forms. However, the fossil record of Early Cretaceous pliosaurids is poor, concealing the evolution and ecological diversity of the group. Here, we report a new pliosaurid...

Data from: Similar levels of trophic and functional diversity within damselfish assemblages across Indo–Pacific coral reefs

Laura Gajdzik, Eric Parmentier, Loïc N. Michel, Nicolas Sturaro, Keryea Soong, Gilles Lepoint & Bruno Frédérich
1. Understanding the forces that influence the dynamics of communities is a key challenge to undertake in changing environments. Despite recent advances in coral reef community ecology, a more comprehensive knowledge about processes (niche related–traits and phylogenies) driving the composition of reef fish community is needed. 2. Here, we conducted a quantitative comparison of these processes in damselfish assemblages that belong to three distinct Indo–Pacific coral reefs differing in taxonomic composition, morphology and degree of...

Data from: Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning

Nathalie Jeanray, Raphaël Marée, Benoist Pruvot, Olivier Stern, Pierre Geurts, Louis Wehenkel & Marc Muller
Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on...

Data from: Facultative paedomorphosis as a mechanism promoting intraspecific niche differentiation

Benjamin Lejeune, Nicolas Sturaro, Gilles Lepoint & Mathieu Denoel
Organisms with complex life cycles are characterized by a metamorphosis that allows for a major habitat shift and the exploitation of alternative resources. However, metamorphosis can be bypassed in some species through a process called paedomorphosis, resulting in the retention of larval traits at the adult stage and is considered important at both micro- and macroevolutionary scales. In facultatively paedomorphic populations of newts, some individuals retain gills and a fully aquatic life at the adult...

Data from: Performance of glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in Congolese healthy adults: inopportunity of ethnic correction

Justine B Bukabau, Ernest K Sumaili, Etienne Cavalier, Hans Pottel, Bejos Kifakiou, Aliocha Nkodila, Jean-Robert R Makulo, Vieux M Mokoli, Chantal V Zinga, Augustin L Longo, Yannick M Engole, Yannick M Nlandu, François B Lepira, Nazaire M Nseka, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Pierre Delanaye, Justine B. Bukabau, Ernest K. Sumaili, Jean Robert R. Makulo, Vieux M. Mokoli, Chantal V. Zinga, Augustin L. Longo, Yannick M. Engole, Yannick M. Nlandu, François B. Lepira … & Jean Marie Krzesinski
Context and objective: In the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ethnicity is an important determinant. However, all existing equations have been built solely from Caucasian and Afro-American populations and they are potentially inaccurate for estimating GFR in African populations. We therefore evaluated the performance of different estimated GFR (eGFR) equations in predicting measured GFR (mGFR). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 93 healthy adults were randomly selected in the general population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic...

Data from: Partitioning the relative contribution of one-phase and two-phase seed dispersal when evaluating seed dispersal effectiveness

Laurence Culot, Marie-Claude Huynen & Eckhard W. Heymann
Seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) is a conceptual framework that aims at quantifying the contribution of seed dispersal vectors to plant fitness. While it is well recognized that diplochorous dispersal systems, characterized by two successive dispersal steps performed by two different vectors (Phase I = primary seed dispersal and Phase II = secondary seed dispersal) are common in temperate and tropical regions, little attention has been given to distinguishing the relative contribution of one-phase and two-phase...

Data from: The size at reproduction of canopy tree species in central Africa

Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Fidèle Baya, Achille Bernard Biwolé, Nils Bourland, Fousséni Fétéké, Jean-François Gillet, Yao Lambert Kouadio & Adeline Fayolle
Size at reproduction is a key aspect of species life history that has been little explored for long-lived tropical trees. In this study, we aimed to quantify reproductive diameter for 31 major timber species across 11 sites in Cameroon, Congo, and Central African Republic. Specifically, we examined (1) whether between-species variability can be explained by a set of seven species traits; (2) whether reproductive diameter varied within-species among sites; (3) whether reproductive status varied with...

Data from: The ‘male escape hypothesis’: sex-biased metamorphosis in response to climatic drivers in a facultatively paedomorphic amphibian

Anthony G.E. Mathiron, Jean-Paul Lena, Sarah Baouch, Mathieu Denoël & Anthony G. E. Mathiron
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is...

Data from: Closing a gap in tropical forest biomass estimation: taking crown mass variation into account in pantropical allometries

Pierre Ploton, Nicholas Barbier, Stéphane Takoudjou Momo, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Faustin Boyemba Bosela, Georges Chuyong, Gilles Dauby, Vincent Droissart, Adeline Fayolle, Rosa Calisto Goodman, Mathieu Henry, Narcisse Guy Kamdem, John Katembo Mukirania, David Kenfack, Moses Libalah, Alfred Ngomanda, Vivien Rossi, Bonaventure Sonké, Nicolas Texier, Duncan Thomas, Donatien Zebaze, Pierre Couteron, Uta Berger & Raphaël Pélissier
Accurately monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks is an outstanding challenge. Allometric models that consider tree diameter, height and wood density as predictors are currently used in most tropical forest carbon studies. In particular, a pantropical biomass model has been widely used for approximately a decade, and its most recent version will certainly constitute a reference in the coming years. However, this reference model shows a systematic bias for the largest trees. Because large trees are...

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