8 Works

Data from: Evidence for a pervasive ‘idling-mode’ activity template in flying and pedestrian insects

Andrew M. Reynolds, Hayley B. C. Jones, Jane K. Hill, Aislinn J. Pearson, Kenneth Wilson, Stephan Wolf, Ka S. Lim, Donald R. Reynolds, Jason W. Chapman, J. K. Hill, S. Wolf, K. Wilson, J. W. Chapman, H. B. C. Jones, K. S. Lim, A. J. Pearson, A. M. Reynolds & D. R. Reynolds
Understanding the complex movement patterns of animals in natural environments is a key objective of ‘movement ecology’. Complexity results from behavioural responses to external stimuli but can also arise spontaneously in their absence. Drawing on theoretical arguments about decision-making circuitry, we predict that the spontaneous patterns will be scale-free and universal, being independent of taxon and mode of locomotion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity patterns of the European honeybee, and multiple species...

Data from: A synthetic, catalytic and theoretical investigation of an unsymmetrical SCN pincer palladacycle

Gavin W. Roffe, Sarote Boonseng, Christine B. Baltus, Simon J. Coles, Iain J. Day, Rhiannon N. Jones, Neil J. Press, Mario Ruiz, Graham J. Tizzard, Hazel Cox & John Spencer
The SCN ligand 2-{3-[(methylsulfanyl)methyl]phenyl}pyridine, 1, has been synthesized starting from an initial Suzuki–Miyaura (SM) coupling between 3-((hydroxymethyl)phenyl)boronic acid and 2-bromopyridine. The C–H activation of 1 with in situ formed Pd(MeCN)4(BF4)2 has been studied and leads to a mixture of palladacycles, which were characterized by X-ray crystallography. The monomeric palladacycle LPdCl 6, where L-H = 1, has been synthesized, and tested in SM couplings of aryl bromides, where it showed moderate activity. Density functional theory and...

Data from: Plant toxin levels in nectar vary spatially across native and introduced populations

Paul A. Egan, Phillip C. Stevenson, Erin Jo Tiedeken, Geraldine A. Wright, Fabio Boylan & Jane C. Stout
Secondary compounds in nectar can function as toxic chemical defences against floral antagonists, but may also mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Despite their ecological importance, few studies have investigated patterns of spatial variation in toxic nectar compounds in plant species, and none outside their native range. Grayanotoxin I (GTX I) occurs in nectar of invasive Rhododendron ponticum where it is toxic to honeybees and some solitary bee species. We examined (i) geographic variation in the composition of...

Data from: Plant-mediated effects on mosquito capacity to transmit human malaria

Domonbabele F D S Hien, Kounbobr R Dabiré, Benjamin Roche, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Rakiswende S Yerbanga, Anna Cohuet, Bienvenue Yameogo, Louis-Clément Gouagna, Richard J Hopkins, Georges A Ouedraogo, Frederic Simard, Jean-Bosco Ouedraogo, Rickard Ignell, Thierry Lefèvre, Domonbabele F. D. S. Hien, Kounbobr R. Dabiré, Rakiswende S. Yerbanga, Bienvenue K. Yameogo & Richard J. Hopkins
The ecological context in which mosquitoes and malaria parasites interact has received little attention, compared to the genetic and molecular aspects of malaria transmission. Plant nectar and fruits are important for the nutritional ecology of malaria vectors, but how the natural diversity of plant-derived sugar sources affects mosquito competence for malaria parasites is unclear. To test this, we infected Anopheles coluzzi, an important African malaria vector, with sympatric field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, using direct...

Data from: Masking of an auditory behaviour reveals how male mosquitoes use distortion to detect females

Patricio M. V. Simões, Robert Ingham, Gabriella Gibson & Ian J. Russell
The mating behaviour of many mosquito species is mediated essentially by sound: males follow and mate with a female mid-flight by detecting and tracking the whine of her flight-tones. The stereotypical rapid frequency modulation (RFM) male behaviour, initiated in response to the detection of the female's flight-tones, has provided a means of investigating these auditory mechanisms while males are free-flying. Mosquitoes hear with their antennae, which vibrate to near-field acoustic excitation. The antennae generate nonlinear...

Data from: Disease where you dine: plant species and floral traits associated with pathogen transmission in bumble bees

Lynn S. Adler, Kristen M. Michaud, Stephen P. Ellner, Scott H. McArt, Phillip C. Stevenson, Rebecca E. Irwin & Philip C. Stevenson
Hotspots of disease transmission can strongly influence pathogen spread. Bee pathogens may be transmitted via shared floral use, but the role of plant species and floral trait variation in shaping transmission dynamics is almost entirely unexplored. Given the importance of pathogens for the decline of several bee species, understanding whether and how plant species and floral traits affect transmission could give us important tools for predicting which plant species may be hotspots for disease spread....

Data from: Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind

Jason W. Chapman, Cecilia Nilsson, Ka S. Lim, Johan Bäckman, Donald R. Reynolds, Thomas Alerstam & Don R. Reynolds
1. Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, i.e. by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the...

Cocoa mirid attractiveness by different colour of trap

Hermine Mahot, Joseph R. Mahob, David R. Hall, Sarah E.J. Arnold, Apollin K. Fotso, Gertrude Membang, Nathalie Ewane, Adolph Kemga, Komi K.M. Fiaboe, Charles F.B. Bilong & Rachid Hanna
Cocoa mirids, Sahlbergella singularis and Distantiella theobroma, are the most economically important insect pests of cocoa in West and Central Africa, where they can cause up to 40% losses in cocoa yields. Sahlbergella singularis is the most common species in Cameroon and was therefore targeted in this study. During a two-year trial in 15 cocoa plantations in Ayos and Konye, in the Centre and Southwest regions of Cameroon respectively, the most effective colour – white,...

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