265 Works

Feeding ecology has a stronger evolutionary influence on functional morphology than on body mass in mammals

David Grossnickle
Ecological specialization is a central driver of adaptive evolution. However, selective pressures may uniquely affect different ecomorphological traits (e.g., size and shape), complicating efforts to investigate the role of ecology in generating phenotypic diversity. Comparative studies can help remedy this issue by identifying specific relationships between ecologies and morphologies, thus elucidating functionally-relevant traits. Jaw shape is a dietary correlate that offers considerable insight on mammalian evolution, but few studies have examined the influence of diet...

Seasonal and directional dispersal behavior in an ongoing dove invasion

David Slager
Range expansions require the dispersal of individual organisms, but dispersal behavior is notoriously difficult to study. Eurasian Collared-Doves have colonized both Europe and North America this century, with both initial invasions proceeding northwestward via "jump" dispersal. The European population has reached carrying capacity, but in the Americas, where exponential population growth continues, little is known about dispersal behavior. I queried citizen science field notes to investigate Eurasian Collared-Dove dispersal behavior in North America along the...

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

Data from: Genomic and phenotypic effects of inbreeding across two different hatchery management regimes in Chinook salmon

Charles Waters, Jeffrey Hard, David Fast, Curtis Knudsen, William Bosch & Kerry-Ann Naish
Genomic approaches permit direct estimation of inbreeding and its effect on fitness. We used genomic-based estimates of inbreeding to investigate their relationship with eight adult traits in a captive-reared Pacific salmonid that is released into the wild. Estimates were also used to determine whether alternative broodstock management approaches reduced risks of inbreeding. Specifically, 1,100 unlinked restriction-site associated (RAD) loci were used to compare pairwise relatedness, derived from a relationship matrix, and individual inbreeding, estimated by...

Data from: Divergence in DNA photorepair efficiency among genotypes from contrasting UV radiation environments in nature

Brooks E. Miner, Paige M. Kulling, Karlyn D. Beer & Benjamin Kerr
Populations of organisms routinely face abiotic selection pressures, and a central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the mechanistic underpinnings of adaptive phenotypes. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of earth’s most pervasive environmental stressors, potentially damaging DNA in any organism exposed to solar radiation. We explored mechanisms underlying differential survival following UVR exposure in genotypes of the water flea Daphnia melanica derived from natural ponds of differing in UVR intensity. The UVR tolerance of...

Co-evolution of cleaning and feeding morphology in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific gobies

Jonathan Huie, Christine Thacker & Luke Tornabene
Cleaning symbioses are mutualistic relationships where cleaners remove and consume ectoparasites from their clients. Cleaning behavior is rare in fishes and is a highly specialized feeding strategy only observed in around 200 species. Cleaner fishes vary in their degree of specialization, ranging from species that clean as juveniles or facultatively as adults, to nearly obligate or dedicated cleaners. Here we investigate whether these different levels of trophic specialization correspond with similar changes in feeding morphology....

Automating Gloss Generation in Interlinear Glossed Text

Angelina McMillan-Major

What Code-Switching Strategies are Effective in Dialogue Systems?

Emily Ahn, Cecilia Jimenez, Yulia Tsvetkov & Alan Black

Modeling unsupervised phonetic and phonological learning in Generative Adversarial Phonology

Gašper Beguš

Toward low-cloud-permitting cloud superparameterization with explicit boundary layer turbulence -- simulation data

Hossein Parishani, Michael Pritchard, Christopher Bretherton, Matthew Wyant & Marat Khairoutdinov
This data set contains the simulation outputs used in the study summarized below: Systematic biases in the representation of boundary layer (BL) clouds are a leading source of uncertainty in climate projections. A variation on superparameterization (SP) called ‘‘ultraparameterization’’ (UP) is developed, in which the grid spacing of the cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is fine enough (250x20 m) to explicitly capture the BL turbulence, associated clouds, and entrainment in a global climate model capable of multiyear...

Data from: Origins of East Asian Summer Monsoon Seasonality

John Chiang, Wenwen Kong, Chi-Hua Wu & David Battisti
Climatological model output used in Chiang et al. (2019), "Origins of East Asian Summer Monsoon Seasonality".

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

Chinese Funerary Biographies: Chinese Texts

Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Ping Yao & Cong Ellen Zhang
This text is an online supplement to Chinese Funerary Biographies: An Anthology of Remembered Lives, edited by Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Ping Yao, and Cong Ellen Zhang (University of Washington Press, 2019), containing the original biographies in Chinese.

Do different rates of gene flow underlie variation in phenotypic and phenological clines in a montane grasshopper community?

Sean Schoville, Rachel Slatyer, César Nufio & Lauren Buckley
Species responses to environmental change are likely to depend on existing genetic and phenotypic variation, as well as evolutionary potential. A key challenge is to determine whether gene flow might facilitate or impede genomic divergence among populations responding to environmental change, and if emergent phenotypic variation is limited by gene flow rates. A general expectation is that patterns of genetic differentiation in a set of co-distributed species reflect differences in dispersal ability. In less-dispersive species,...

Data from: Multi-year genetic sampling indicates maternal gene flow via colony emigrations in the army ant Eciton burchellii parvispinum

Thomas W. Soare, Anjali Kumar, Kerry A. Naish & Sean O'Donnell
Sex-biased dispersal occurs when one sex disperses more frequently or farther than the opposite sex. In ants, dispersal is often male-biased and males typically contribute more strongly to gene flow within and among ant populations. However, army ants may offer an exceptional case of female-biased dispersal because army ant colonies (particularly species in the Neotropical genus Eciton) routinely emigrate among nest sites. We hypothesized that maternal mobility via successive colony emigrations would reduce the relative...

Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework

Erin Landguth, Erin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....

Extinct plants of North America north of Mexico

Wesley Knapp, Anne Frances, Reed Noss, Robert Naczi, Alan Weakley, George Gann, Bruce Baldwin, James Miller, Patrick McIntyre, Brent Mishler, Gerry Moore, Richard Olmstead, Anna Strong, Daniel Gluesenkamp & Kathryn Kennedy
The recent study by Humphreys et al., reporting extinction of almost 600 plant species globally, represents a groundbreaking effort at compiling direct data on seed plants. We applaud Humphreys et al. for quantifying plant extinctions because they formulate an important and testable hypothesis. However, their study missed many extinctions and rediscoveries of seed plants in the United States and Canada. Our team of experts has been compiling a list of extinct plants of North America...

Computational and experimental insights into the chemosensory navigation of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae

Eleanor Lutz, Tjinder Grewal & Jeffrey Riffell
Mosquitoes are prolific disease vectors that affect public health around the world. Although many studies have investigated search strategies used by host-seeking adult mosquitoes, little is known about larval search behavior. Larval behavior affects adult body size and fecundity, and thus the capacity of individual mosquitoes to find hosts and transmit disease. Understanding vector survival at all life stages is crucial for improving disease control. In this study we use experimental and computational methods to...

Data from: The Moorfields AMD Database Report 2 - Fellow Eye Involvement with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

Katrin Fasler, Dun Jack Fu, Gabriella Moraes, Siegfried K Wagner, Eesha Gokhale, Karsten U Kortuem, Reena Chopra, Livia Faes, Gabriella Preston, Nikolas Pontikos, Praveen J Patel, Adnan Tufail, Aaron Y Lee, Konstantinos Balaskas & Pearse A Keane
Background/Aims: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is frequently bilateral, and previous reports on ‘fellow eyes’’ have assumed sequential treatment after a period of treatment of the first eye only. The aim of our study was to analyse baseline characteristics and visual acuity (VA) outcomes of fellow eye involvement with nAMD, specifically differentiating between sequential and non-sequential (due to macular scarring in the first eye) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment and timelines for fellow eye involvement....

Data from: Assexon: assembling exon using gene capture data

Hao Yuan, Calder Atta, Luke Tornabene & Chenhong Li
Exon capture across species has been one of the most broadly applied approaches to acquire multi-locus data in phylogenomic studies of non-model organisms. Methods for assembling loci from short-read sequences (eg, Illumina platforms) that rely on mapping reads to a reference genome may not be suitable for studies comprising species across a wide phylogenetic spectrum; thus, de novo assembling methods are more generally applied. Current approaches for assembling targeted exons from short reads are not...

Data from: Chloroplast primers for clade-wide phylogenetic studies of Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae)

Diego Fernando Morales-Briones, Tatiana Arias, Verónica Di Stilio & David C. Tank
Premise Chloroplast primers were developed for phylogenetic and comparative studies in Thalictrum (Ranunculaceae). Methods and Results We assembled and annotated the complete plastome sequence of T. thalictroides by combining multiple whole genome sequencing libraries. Using transcriptome‐sequencing libraries, we also assembled a partial plastome of the related species T. hernandezii. From the newly assembled plastomes and one previously sequenced plastome, we designed and validated 28 primer pairs to target variable portions of the chloroplast genome in...

Data from: An effective method for ecosystem-scale manipulation of bird abundance and species richness

Chelsea Wood, Margaret Summerside & Pieter Johnson
Manipulation experiments are a cornerstone of ecological research, but can be logistically challenging to execute – particularly when they are intended to isolate the ecological role of large, vagile species, like birds. Despite indirect evidence that birds are influential in many ecosystems, large-scale, multi-year bird manipulation experiments are rare. When these studies are conducted, they are typically realized with caged or netted exclosures, an approach that can be expensive, risky for wildlife, and difficult to...

Data from: Knowing when to stick: touch receptors found in the remora adhesive disc

Karly E. Cohen, Brooke E. Flammang, Callie H. Crawford & L. Patricia Hernandez
Remoras are fishes that piggyback onto larger marine fauna via an adhesive disc to increase locomotor efficiency, likelihood of finding mates, and access to prey. Attaching rapidly to a large, fast moving host is no easy task, and while research to date has focused on how the disc supports adhesion, no attention has been paid to how or if remoras are able to sense attachment. We identified push-rod-like mechanoreceptor complexes embedded in the soft lip...

Data from: Suppression and facilitation of human neural responses

Michael-Paul Schallmo, Alexander M. Kale, Rachel Millin, Anastasia V. Flevaris, Zoran Brkanac, Richard A.E. Edden, Raphael A. Bernier, Scott Murray, Alexander M Kale, Anastasia V Flevaris, Scott O Murray, Raphael A Bernier & Richard AE Edden
Efficient neural processing depends on regulating responses through suppression and facilitation of neural activity. Utilizing a well-known visual motion paradigm that evokes behavioral suppression and facilitation, and combining 5 different methodologies (behavioral psychophysics, computational modeling, functional MRI, pharmacology, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy), we provide evidence that challenges commonly held assumptions about the neural processes underlying suppression and facilitation. We show that: 1) both suppression and facilitation can emerge from a single, computational principle - divisive...

Data from: Forty years of seagrass population stability and resilience in an urbanizing estuary

Andrew Olaf Shelton, Tessa B. Francis, Blake E. Feist, Gregory D. Williams, Adam Lindquist, Phillip S. Levin, Philip S. Levin & Andrew O. Shelton
Coasts and estuaries contain among the most productive and ecologically important habitats in the world and face intense pressure from current and projected human activities, including coastal development. Seagrasses are a key habitat feature in many estuaries perceived to be in widespread decline owing to human actions. We use spatio-temporal models and a 41-year time series from 100s of km of shoreline which includes over 160 000 observations from Puget Sound, Washington, USA, to examine...

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