Data from: Elevated salinity blocks pathogen transmission and improves host survival for a globally pandemic disease: implications for amphibian translocationsSimon Clulow, John Gould, Hugh James, Michelle Stockwell, John Clulow & Michael Mahony
1. Emerging infectious diseases are one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Chytridiomycosis in amphibians is perhaps the most extreme example of this phenomenon known to science. Translocations are increasingly used to fight disease-induced extinctions. However, many programs fail because disease is still present or subsequently establishes in the translocation environment. There is a need for studies in real-world scenarios to test whether environmental manipulation could improve survival in populations by generating unfavourable environmental...
Determining the relationships among the major groups of cellular life is important for understanding the evolution of biological diversity, but is difficult given the enormous time spans involved. In the textbook 'three domains' tree based on informational genes, eukaryotes and Archaea share a common ancestor to the exclusion of Bacteria. However, some phylogenetic analyses of the same data have placed eukaryotes within the Archaea, as the nearest relatives of different archaeal lineages. We compared the...
Data from: Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birdsPetra Griekspoor, Frances M. Colles, Noel D. McCarthy, Philip M. Hansbro, Chris Ashhurst-Smith, Björn Olsen, Dennis Hasselquist, Martin C. J. Maiden & Jonas Waldenström
Zoonotic pathogens often infect several animal species, and gene flow among populations infecting different host species may affect the biological traits of the pathogen including host specificity, transmissibility and virulence. The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic multihost pathogen, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Poultry products are important transmission vehicles to humans, but the bacterium is common in other domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, which are a potential infection source. Population genetic...
Despite concerns on the effects of noise from seismic survey air guns on marine organisms, there remains uncertainty in the biological significance of any response. This study quantifies and interprets the response of migrating humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to a 3130 cui (51.3l) commercial air gun array. We compare the behavioural responses to active trials (array operational; n = 34 whale groups), with responses to control trials (source vessel towing the array while silent; n...
Data from: Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy bitingStephen Wroe, William C.H. Parr, Justin A. Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P. Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C. Rae, Todd R. Yokley & William C. H. Parr
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: 1) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, 2) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air, and, 3) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup (H. heidelbergensis), applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach...
Data from: Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 responseWilliam D. K. Reid, Andrew J. Close, Suzanne Humphrey, Gemma Chaloner, Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Lisa Rothwell, Pete Kaiser, Nicola J. Williams, Thomas J. Humprey, Paul Wigley, Stephen P. Rushton & Tom J. Humphrey
Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies,...
Data from: Tasting novel foods and selecting nutrient content in a highly successful ecological invader, the common mynaChloe Peneaux, Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska, David Raubenheimer, Francoise Lermite, Charlotte Rousseau, Tanya Ruhan, John C. Rodger, Andrea S. Griffin & Chloe Peneaux
Invasion success is dependent on the ability of a species to discover and exploit novel food resources. Within this context, individuals must be willing to taste novel foods. They must also be capable of evaluating the nutritional content of new foods, and selecting their relative intake in order to fulfil their nutritional needs. Whereas the former capacity is well studied, little is known about the latter capacity. First, using the common myna as a model...
Aim: Long-distance dispersal (LDD) events occur rarely but play a fundamental role in shaping species biogeography. Lying at the heart of island biogeography theory, LDD relies on unusual events to facilitate colonisation of new habitats and range expansion. Despite the importance of LDD, it is inherently difficult to quantify due to the rarity of such events. We estimate the probability of LDD of the seagrass Heterozostera nigricaulis, a common Australian species, across the Pacific Ocean...
Data from: Simple measures of climate, soil properties and plant traits predict national scale grassland soil carbon stocksPeter Manning, Franciska T. De Vries, Jerry R. B. Tallowin, Roger Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Emma S. Pilgrim, Kate A. Harrison, Daniel G. Wright, Helen Quirk, Joseph Benson, Bill Shipley, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Christian Wirth & Richard D. Bardgett
1. Soil carbon (C) storage is a key ecosystem service. Soil C stocks play a vital role in soil fertility and climate regulation, but the factors that control these stocks at regional and national scales are unknown, particularly when their composition and stability are considered. As a result, their mapping relies on either unreliable proxy measures or laborious direct measurements. 2. Using data from an extensive national survey of English grasslands, we show that surface...
Data from: Plant, soil and microbial controls on grassland diversity restoration: a long-term, multi-site mesocosm experimentEllen L. Fry, Emma S. Pilgrim, Jerry R.B. Tallowin, Roger S. Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Deborah A. Beaumont, Janet Simkin, Stephanie J. Harris, Robert S. Shiel, Helen Quirk, Kate A. Harrison, Clare S. Lawson, Phil A. Hobbs & Richard D. Bardgett
The success of grassland biodiversity restoration schemes is determined by many factors; as such their outcomes can be unpredictable. There is a need for improved understanding of the relative importance of belowground factors to restoration success, such as contrasting soil type and management intensities, as well as plant community composition and order of assembly. We carried out an eight-year mesocosm experiment across three locations in the UK to explore the relative and interactive roles of...
The striking resemblance of long-snouted aquatic mammals and reptiles has long been considered an example of morphological convergence, yet the true cause of this similarity remains untested. We addressed this deficit through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the full diversity of crocodilian and toothed whale (Odontoceti) skull shapes. Our focus on biomechanically important aspects of shape allowed us to overcome difficulties involved in comparing mammals and reptiles, which have fundamental differences in the number and position...
Data from: Claw morphometrics in monitor lizards: variable substrate and habitat use correlate to shape diversity within a predator guildDomenic C. D'Amore, Simon Clulow, J. Sean Doody, David Rhind & Colin R. McHenry
Numerous studies investigate morphology in the context of habitat, and lizards have received particular attention. Substrate usage is often reflected in the morphology of characters associated with locomotion, and, as a result, claws have become well‐studied ecomorphological traits linking the two. The Kimberley predator guild of Western Australia consists of 10 sympatric varanid species. The purpose of this study was to quantify claw size and shape in the guild using geometric morphometrics, and determine whether...
Data from: 8-year trends in physical activity, nutrition, TV viewing time, smoking, alcohol and BMI: a comparison of younger and older Queensland adultsStephanie J. Alley, Mitch J. Duncan, Stephanie Schoeppe, Amanda L. Rebar & Corneel Vandelanotte
Lifestyle behaviours significantly contribute to high levels of chronic disease in older adults. The aims of the study were to compare the prevalence and the prevalence trends of health behaviours (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, fast food consumption, TV viewing, smoking and alcohol consumption), BMI and a summary health behaviour indicator score in older (65+ years) versus younger adults (18-65 years). The self-report outcomes were assessed through the Queensland Social Survey annually between 2007-2014...
Previous empirical evaluations of training programs aimed at improving dog adoption rates assume that dogs exhibiting certain behaviors are more adoptable. However, no systematic data are available to indicate that the spontaneous behavior of shelter dogs has an effect on adopter preference. The aim of the present study was to determine whether any behaviors that dogs exhibit spontaneously in the presence of potential adopters were associated with the dogs' length of stay in the shelter....
Objectives: To compare the frequency of and trends in healthy lifestyle factors between singles and couples. Methods: Cross-sectional data from annual surveys conducted from 2005-2014 were used. The pooled sample included 15,001 Australian adults (mean age: 52.9 years, 50% male, 74% couples) who participated in the annual Queensland Social Survey via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Relationship status was dichotomised into single and couple. Binary logistic regression was used to assess associations between relationship status, and the...
Data from: Opportunistic records reveal Mediterranean reptiles’ scale‐dependent responses to anthropogenic land useThomas De Solan, Ian Renner, Marc Cheylan, Philippe Geniez & Jean-Yves Barnagaud
Although classified among the greatest threats to the world's biodiversity, the effects of land use and their scale dependency are left unexplored in many taxonomic groups. Reptiles are among the most data‐deficient vertebrates in this respect, although their ecological traits make them highly sensitive to habitat modifications. We tested whether land use gradients shape the distributions of Mediterranean reptiles at regional and local scales, and whether species’ ecological traits and phylogeny explain these patterns. Reptiles...
1. Presence-only data are widely used for species distribution modelling, and point process regression models are a exible tool that has considerable potential for this problem, when data arise as point events. 2. In this paper we review point process models, some of their advantages, and some common methods of fitting them to presence-only data. 3. Advantages include (and are not limited to): clarification of what the response variable is that is modelled; a framework...
Data from: Two speed invasion: assisted and intrinsic dispersal of common mynas over 150-years of colonizationKyle M. Ewart, Andrea S. Griffin, Rebecca N. Johnson, Salit Kark, Tali Magory Cohen, Nathan Lo & Richard E. Major
Aim: Despite the common myna’s widespread distribution, and the significant impact it has caused in parts of its non-native range, there have been no comprehensive genomic studies of its invasion of any region. We aimed to characterize the common myna invasion of the Australian continent to understand its population genetic landscape, introduction history, dispersal characteristics, and the interconnectedness between different source populations and invasive fronts. Location: Common mynas from 26 geographical locations spanning the Australian...
University of Newcastle Australia18
University of Queensland2
Natural History Museum2
Central Queensland University2
University of Manchester2
University of Sydney2
University of Reading2