460 Works

Distant Trails: A Multimedia Biography of E. Dee Miller

Marty Ewer
My project is to author a multimedia presentation of my grandfather's biography. To undertake such a project as this requires a certain awareness of the task. Even as I sat down the first time to contemplate what I was trying to accomplish, I began to realize the implications of the overall project. I'm not just speaking of the research and labor required to put it all together but something that must precede that.

Workshop on Convergence in Biological Engineering

Keith Roper

The Alfalfa Insecticide Management (AIM) Toolkit: Linking insecticide fate modelling with alfalfa pest and beneficial insect toxicity endpoints

Kimberly Hageman
By modeling how long it takes for pesticide residuals on foliage to reach toxic thresholds for insects, well-informed decisions for the timing of applications for pest control, protection of beneficial insects, and introduction of pollinators can be made and crop production optimized.

Estimating Total and Bioavailable Nutrient Loading to Utah Lake from the Atmosphere

Janice Brahney
Anthropogenic activities have led to increases in the emission, atmospheric transport, and deposition of key nutrients. In addition, climate change along with anthropogenic soil disturbance has led to recent increases in the mobilization and transport of soils and other particles through the atmosphere, collectively described here as dust. These increased emissions have led to growing interest and concern over the composition of atmospheric deposition and total loading of nutrients to aquatic systems. In the last...

Isotope Summary Data

Andrew Kulmatiski

Ploidy and Clonal Membership in Populus Tremuloides from RADseq Data

Benjamin Blonder, James A. Walton & Karen E. Mock
Ipyrad pipeline parameters files, raw sequence data, barcodes and supporting scripts for clonal and cytotype sample assignment of Populus tremuloides.

Data from: Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect

Aaron A. Comeault, Samuel M. Flaxman, Rüdiger Riesch, Emma Curran, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Timothy E. Farkas, Moritz Muschick, Thomas L. Parchman, Tanja Schwander, Jon Slate & Patrik Nosil
The interplay between selection and aspects of the genetic architecture of traits (such as linkage, dominance, and epistasis) can either drive or constrain speciation. Despite accumulating evidence that speciation can progress to “intermediate” stages—with populations evolving only partial reproductive isolation—studies describing selective mechanisms that impose constraints on speciation are more rare than those describing drivers. The stick insect Timema cristinae provides an example of a system in which partial reproductive isolation has evolved between populations...

Data from: Bayesian inference of selection in a heterogeneous environment from genetic time-series data

Zachariah Gompert
Evolutionary geneticists have sought to characterize the causes and molecular targets of selection in natural populations for many years. Although this research program has been somewhat successful, most statistical methods employed were designed to detect consistent, weak to moderate selection. In contrast, phenotypic studies in nature show that selection varies in time and that individual bouts of selection can be strong. Measurements of the genomic consequences of such fluctuating selection could help test and refine...

Data from: Food restriction and chronic stress alter energy use and affect immunity in an infrequent feeder

Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, H. Bobby Fokidis, Austin Spence, Marilize Van Der Walt, Geoffrey D. Smith, Susan Durham, Susannah S. French & Austin R. Spence
Glucocorticoids are important mediators of energy utilization for key physiological processes, including immune function. Much work has focused on the effects of energy limitation and stress for key physiological processes such as reproduction and immunity. However, it is unclear how stress alters energy use across different energy states, and the physiological ramifications of such effects are even less clear. In this study, we altered energy and stress states of an infrequent feeder, the Terrestrial Gartersnake...

Data from: The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic host

Joshua G. Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle, Rachel Grinstead, Joshua P. Jahner, Scott Mikel, Christopher C. Nice, Aldrin Santamaria & Matthew L. Forister
From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization...

Data from: Ultra-Conserved Element phylogenomics of new world Ponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) illuminates the origin and phylogeographic history of the endemic exotic ant Ponera exotica

Michael G. Branstetter & John T. Longino
The genus Ponera is a lineage of leaf litter ants, with a center of diversity in the Indo-Australian region. Two species occur in the New World; however, uncertainty exists with regard to their biogeographic origins and species limits, especially for isolated cloud forest populations in Middle America. We investigate the geographic distribution, phylogeny, and phylogeography of these two species to better characterize the American ant fauna and to gain insight into the biogeography of taxa...

Data from: Long-term experimental hybridisation results in a heterologous transition and the evolution of a new sex chromosome in swordtail fish

Paolo Franchini, Julia C. Jones, Peiwen Xiong, Susanne Kneitz, Zachariah Gompert, Wesley C. Warren, Ronald B. Walter, Axel Meyer & Manfred Schartl
The remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms known in fish may be fuelled by exceptionally high rates of sex chromosome turnovers or transitions. However, the evolutionary causes and genomic mechanisms underlying this variation and instability are yet to be understood. Here we report on an over 30-year evolutionary experiment in which we tested the genomic consequences of hybridisation and selection between two Xiphophorus fish species with different sex chromosome systems. We find that introgression and...

Data from: Local and system-wide adaptation is influenced by population connectivity

Patrik Nosil, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffery L. Feder, Samuel M. Flaxman, Zachariah Gompert, Jeffrey L. Feder & Zach Gompert
Complex systems can be conceptualized and studied as networks of nodes with varying connectivity between nodes. In well-connected systems, local disturbance of individual nodes can be countered by input from neighbouring nodes, buffering the system against local change. Thus, pronounced change in a well-connected system may not occur until the system hits a threshold or ‘tipping point’ that drives a shift to an alternative, system-wide state. In contrast, poorly connected systems are more prone to...

Data from: Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild

Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Jeffery L. Feder, Thomas L. Parchman, Alex C. Buerkle, Patrik Nosil & Jeffrey L. Feder
Understanding natural selection's effect on genetic variation is a major goal in biology, but the genome-scale consequences of contemporary selection are not well known. In a release and recapture field experiment we transplanted stick insects to native and novel host plants and directly measured allele frequency changes within a generation at 186 576 genetic loci. We observed substantial, genome-wide allele frequency changes during the experiment, most of which could be attributed to random mortality (genetic...

Data from: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O'Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman … & Alejandro Ordonez
Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats1, 2, 3. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms4. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf...

Data from: Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species

Jeffrey D. Lozier, James P. Strange, Isaac J. Stewart & Sydney A. Cameron
The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, although other species remain healthy. To examine whether declining and stable species exhibit different levels of genetic diversity or population fragmentation, we genotyped a set of microsatellite markers from populations sampled across the geographic...

Data from: Large wildlife removal drives immune defense increases in rodents

Hillary S. Young, Rodolfo Dirzo, Kristofer M. Helgen, Douglas J. McCauley, Charles L. Nunn, Paul Snyder, Kari E. Veblen, Serena Zhao & Vanessa O. Ezenwa
Anthropogenic disturbances involving land use change, climate disruption, pollution, and invasive species have been shown to impact immune function of wild animals. These immune changes have direct impacts on the fitness of impacted animals and, also, potentially indirect effects on other species and on ecological processes, notably involving the spread of infectious disease. Here, we investigate whether the selective loss of large wildlife can also drive changes in immune function of other consumer species. Using...

Data from: Interactions between demography, genetics, and landscape connectivity increase extinction probability for a small population of large carnivores in a major metropolitan area

John F. Benson, Peter J. Mahoney, Jeff A. Sikich, Laurel E.K. Serieys, John P. Pollinger, Holly B. Ernest, Seth P.D. Riley, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
The extinction vortex is a theoretical model describing the process by which extinction risk is elevated in small, isolated populations owing to interactions between environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. However, empirical demonstrations of these interactions have been elusive. We modelled the dynamics of a small mountain lion population isolated by anthropogenic barriers in greater Los Angeles, California, to evaluate the influence of demographic, genetic, and landscape factors on extinction probability. The population exhibited strong survival...

Data from: Swimming against the tide: resilience of a riverine turtle to recurrent extreme environmental events

Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner & Fredric J. Janzen
Extreme environmental events (EEE) are likely to exert deleterious effects on populations. From 1996-2012 we studied the nesting dynamics of a riverine population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that experienced seven years with significantly definable spring floods. We used capture-mark-recapture methods to estimate the relationships between >5-m and >6-m flood events and population parameters. Contrary to expectations, flooding was not associated with annual differences in survival, recruitment, or annual population growth rates of the adult...

Data from: Density-dependent intraspecific aggression regulates survival in northern Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus)

Sarah Cubaynes, Daniel R. Mac Nulty, Daniel R. Stahler, Kira A. Quimby, Douglas W. Smith, Tim Coulson & Daniel R. MacNulty
1. Understanding the population dynamics of top predators is essential to assess their impact on ecosystems and to guide their management. Key to this understanding is identifying the mechanisms regulating vital rates. 2. Determining the influence of density on survival is necessary to understand the extent to which human-caused mortality is compensatory or additive. In wolves (Canis lupus), empirical evidence for density-dependent survival is lacking. Dispersal is considered the principal way in which wolves adjust...

Data from: What, if anything, are hybrids: enduring truths and challenges associated with population structure and gene flow

Zachariah Gompert & C. Alex Buerkle
Hybridization is a potent evolutionary process that can affect the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity. Because of its ecological and evolutionary consequences, an understanding of hybridization is important for basic and applied sciences, including conservation biology and agriculture. Herein, we review and discuss ideas that are relevant to the recognition of hybrids and hybridization. We supplement this discussion with simulations. The ideas we present have a long history, particularly in botany, and clarifying them...

Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in lakes of arctic Alaska

Stephen L. Klobucar, Jessica Rick, Elizabeth Mandeville, Catherine Wagner & Phaedra Budy
Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Arctic char (Salvelinus sp.) are a Holarctic fish often forming morphologically, and sometimes genetically, divergent morphs. In this study, we assessed the morphological and genetic diversity and divergence of 263 individuals from seven populations of arctic char with varying length-frequency distributions across two distinct groups of lakes in northern Alaska. Despite close geographic proximity,...

Data from: Measuring the effect of environmental stress on inbreeding depression alone obscures the relative importance of inbreeding-stress interactions on overall fitness in Callosobruchus maculatus

Zachariah Gompert, Amy Springer & Frank Messina
Environmental stress can have a profound effect on inbreeding depression. Quantifying this effect is of particular importance in threatened populations, which are often simultaneously subject to both inbreeding and environmental stress. But while the prevalence of inbreeding-stress interactions is well known, the importance and broader applicability of such interactions in conservation are not clearly understood. We used seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model system to quantify how environmental stressors (here host quality and temperature...

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